PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Agnosia, Twin Study, Sympathetic Nervous System

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17 Oct 2016
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10/13/16
Learning Disabilities
Difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or
mathematical abilities
o Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
o Dyslexia
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
o Made of 3 components:
Analytical
Mental components used to solve problems
Analyze and evaluate
Creative
Using experience to cope with new situation
Create and design
Practical
Ability to adapt to your everyday demands
Apply and put ideas into practice
Emotional Intelligence
Acurate awareess of ad aility to aage oe’s ow eotios to failitate thikig ad
attain specific goals, and the ability to understand what others feel
o Emotional regulation
o Empathy
High emotional intelligence
o Better social relationships
o Perceived more positively by others
o More successful at work
o Greater psychological well-being
IS IT HERITABLE?
Monozygotic twins
o idetial twis
o Form from the same zygote
o Share 100% of genes
Dizygotic twins
o Fraternal twins
o 2 different zygotes
o No more alike than any other siblings
Twin studies
o Identical twins= how much does environment influence development?
Adoption studies
o How much do genes influence development?
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LANGUAGE
Language- the systematic, meaningful arrangement of symbols that provides the basis for
communication
o Allows for us to convey our thoughts to others and understand theirs
Phoneme- basic sound of language
Morpheme- smallest unit of language with meaning
Semantics- rules that govern the meaning of words
Grammar- the system of rules governing the structure and use of language
Preschool years
Syntax- rules for combining words and phrases to form sentences
Fast mapping- new words are associated with their meaning after a brief encounter
Pragmatics- communicating effectively and appropriately with others
THE BEHAVIORI“T’“ VIEW
o Learning theory
Language comes through interacting with others
It follows laws of reinforcement
o Shaping- rewarding successive approximations
*Does not account for picking up on the rules of language
NOAM CHOMSKY
Nativist approach
Language comes naturally
We have innate mechanism
We have a language-acquisition device
Drawbacks
Some primates can learn rudimentary language
Language does take experience
Linguistic Relativity
Linguistic relatively hypothesis
Language may shape how we perceive the world
Based on culture
Piaget- thought leads to language
Vygotsky- they are intertwined
Vygotsky’s
The most important point intellectual development:
o When speech and practical thinking converge
Children use egocentric speech to work through problems
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