PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Libido, Blood Sugar, Homeostasis

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15 Nov 2017
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Emotions Your bodies adaptation to a certain experience
Theories
Discrete Emotion theory Small number of distinct emotions that combine
in complex ways. Each emotion has biological roots. (Only looks like a lot of emotions)
Happiness, disgust, surprise, anger, fear, content
Cognitive Theory of Emotion
James-Lange The body has some experience and then we have
an emotion (you’re sad because you’re crying) (tears come, therefore I must be sad)
Cannon-Bard Theory Experience and emotion come at the same
time (They both hit at once)
2-factor Theory We have some sort of bodily response, and is
arousing in some way (If standing in a room and begin to cry, and you just found out
your dog is ill, you will label that as being sad/upset. Different than crying and cutting
onions. It becomes labeled differently)
Nonverbal Expression of Emotion
Body language and gestures (pretty universal) (But sometimes they do not
match. NONVERBAL ARE MORE ACCURATE)
Personal Space Doesn’t matter what they are saying, if someone steps to you,
it’s a little more intimidating
Lying Human observations: usually fairly accurate. Polygraphs: fancy machine
that looks at sweat, heart rate, respiration spikes (just looking at your body, not what
you say) It’s easier to lie verbally, but you cannot control your body reactions as much.
Happiness
Broaden & Build theory Happiness makes a person more likely to see the big
picture and more open to new ideas (happiness begets happiness)
Interesting Findings Life events do not determine happiness; Money doesn’t
make people happy (usually); Elderly individuals are happier than younger people
Positivity affect imigual is aging and loses focus, fear and rage
memories deteriate and they are left with happy stuff
Does contribute to happiness: Marriage; Friendships; College Education; Giving
to others; Religion; Regular exercise; Gratitude; “Flow”; Republicans > Democrats
Predicting Happiness: Durability Bias some emotion is going to last longer than
it does. (bad or good)
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Hedonic Treadmill All kind of have a set point happiness level (always
come back to a personal average) We get used to accustom to life normality’s
Self-Esteem I am a valuable individual and have worth no matter what anyone else
says
Correlations: +r = happiness -r = loneliness
Motivation (Hunger, Sex, & Belonging) A need or desire that energizes and directs
behavior (Interplay between nature bodily push, and nurture emotional push)
Conditions responsible for variation in intensity, quality, and direction of ongoing
behavior
Drive Reduction Theory (Biological survival) Organisms tend toward
HOMEOSTASIS steady internal state (body temp, blood sugar levels, etc.)
Physiological need creates aroused state that is, in a sense, uncomfortable. Engage in
whatever behavior will meet that need thus, reestablishing homeostasis.
Need relays a Drive which leads to a drive reducing behavior (food,
hungry, satisfied)
Behavior is pushed by bodily condition and need to reestablish
homeostasis
Incentive Theory Environmental stimulus or external goal compels behavior;
pulled by potential; Desire to earn a good grade in psyc 1010; possibility of high grade
pulls one to actually STUDY!
Optimal Arousal Theory Not based on a need (push) or an incentive (pull), but
rather an attempt to maintain personal arousal to degree of individual satisfaction
(Some people have a lower arousal set point, and some have a higher) (STRESS
PREFORMANCE CONNECTION)
Some people need more stimulation in order to be “aroused” … get bored
without it.
Reason to do things that do not meet certain need or offer particular lure
“Thrill Seekers” (Skydiving)
Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization Needs are organized according to
necessity for survival (Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness & love needs,
Esteem needs, Self-actualization needs, Self-transcendence)
Hunger: Activated motives (hinger, thirst, etc.) “hijack” one’s consciousness PRIMARY
FOCUS. When hungry, little else matters (and, no, that is not just an anecdote that’s
science!)
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