PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Operant Conditioning, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Reinforcement

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16 Nov 2017
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Sensational, Perception, Sleeping, Learning on Exam 10/19
Operant Conditioning- Skinner- Behavior is modified by the consequences that follow a
voluntary act.
Changes based on a number of repetitions.
Organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by favorable consequences.
No concern re: Mental processes or internal thoughts.
Behavior is all that matters. All behaviors can be shaped via reinforcement or
punishment.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect- Behavior with favorable consequences = repeat; behavior
with unfavorable consequences = stops.
Reinforcement- anything that increase the likelihood of a behavior (money, food,
attention) Differs from one individual to the next. Some reinforcers may not work all the
time.
Positive Reinforcer- an event that increases the likelihood of a behavior being
repeated (Something given to increase behavior)
Negative Reinforcer- removing an unpleasant stimulus after a response
(Something taken away to increase behavior)
Types of Reinforcers
Primary reinforcers- inherently reinforcing because it satisfies a basic biological
need (Food, water, access to sex, access to other members of species, etc.)
Secondary Reinforcers- Stimulus that becomes reinforcing because it satisfies
learned needs
Study hard and get a good grade, likely to continue to study hard, feel
good about accomplishments
Mention being overwhelmed with homework and roommate does dishes,
likely to mention homework next time you want to avoid doing dishes
Punishment- anything that decreases the likelihood of a behavior (pain, loss of
something good) Also differs from person to person, time to time
Positive punishment- add to experience (Makes it worse by adding a paper)
Negative Punishment- Lessening the experience (not repeating notes because
you weren’t paying attention)
Skinner box
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