PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder

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1 Dec 2017
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Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Anxiety Future oriented mood state; apprehension about anticipated danger or
misfortune
Disorders:
GAD Generalized Anxiety disorder: Global, persistent, chronic,
excessive state of apprehension; often called free-floating anxiety because the identified
source of worry constantly changes or cannot be identified; Physical signs include
excessive perspiration, nausea, trembling, and high blood pressure
Panic Disorder Refers to repeated and unexpected panic attacks, as
well as a fear of the next attack, and a change in behavior to avoid future panic attack;
Living in a constant state a fear of having another and do things to avoid having one
A panic attack NOT just an “anxiety attack” Many minutes of
intense dread or terror; Chest pains, choking, numbness, or other
frightening physical sensations often feel certain that it’s a heart attack
(ER doctor is typically the first to find a diagnosis because they rule out
heart problems); Feeling of a need to escape;
Specified Phobias More than just a strong fear or dislike; Controllable,
irrational, intense desire to avoid some object or situation; Even an image of the object
can trigger reaction; GET IT AWAY FROM ME!!!!!!!!! (Can be a conditioned response)
Agoraphobia = avoidance of situations in which one will fear having
a panic attack, especially a situation in which it is difficult to get help, and from which it’s
difficult to escape
Social Phobia = Intense fear of being watched and judged by
others. It is visible as a fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or
humiliation is possible, such as public speaking, eating, or performing
Social Anxiety Disorder Marked fear or anxiety about situations in
which person might be criticized or scrutinized; Include social interactions, being
observed and performing in front of others; Social interactions are avoided or endured
with intense anxiety or dread;
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions: intense
unwanted worried, ideas, and images that repeatedly pop up in the mind; Compulsion:
Repeatedly strong feeling of “needing” to carry out an action, even though it doesn’t
make sense; Control, order, checklist; Repetitive thoughts/behaviors
PTSD About 10-35% of people who experience trauma not only have
burned-in memories (amygdala), but also 4 weeks to a lifetime of: Repeated intrusive
recall of those memories (flashbacks); Nightmares and other re-experiencing; Social
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withdrawal or phobic avoidance; Jumpy anxiety or hypervigilance; Insomnia or sleep
problems
More likely to get if: less control over a situation; traumatized more
frequently; brain differences; less resiliency; retraumatized
Mood Disorders
Major depression More than just “feeling down”; More than just feeling “sad” about
something
Bipolar Disorder More than “Mood Swings”; Alternating depression and mania
Depression Unfair Criticisms
What do you have to be depressed about?
MDD is difficult under “good” circumstances… Criticism by implying the
depression is merely an exaggerated emotion
One or both of the first two symptoms, PLUS five or more of the following
Depressed mood most of the day
Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities (Anhedonia)
Significant increase/decrease in appetite or weight
Insomnia, sleeping too much (hypersomnia), or disrupted sleep
Lethargy or physical agitation
Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
Worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt
Daily problems in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions
Recurring thought of death and suicide
Annually depressive episodes happen to about 6% of men, 9% of women
Lifetime: 17% of Americans experience depression
The Common Cold of disorders: Both are “common” (occurring frequently and
pervasively)
Understanding Mood Disorders:
Biological Perspective: Mood disorders are a product of genetic predispositions,
abnormalities in brain structures and functions, and neurotransmitter imbalances.
Social Cognitive Perspective: Some people have distorted thoughts. One bad
thing just goes all the way to the worst.
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