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AAAS 311 (1)
Lecture 8

AAAS 311 Lecture 8: AAAS 311 - Midterm Review

12 Pages
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Department
Asian Asian Am Study
Course Code
AAAS 311
Professor
Sungdai Cho

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AAAS 311 – Midterm Review Introduction -Discipline -Anthropology -Sociology -Psychology -Linguistics -General linguistics -Syntax / morphology -Phonology -Semantics / Pragmatics -Historical -Applied linguistics -TESL (teaching English as second language) -TEFL (teaching English as foreign language) -Romanization -Yale: Linguistics -McCune-Reischauer: Other discipline -Korean History -History: 5000 years -BC 2333: Kojosun, Tangun -BC 57: Three kingdom -AD 668: Unified Shilla -AD 918: Koryo -AD 1392: Chosun, Hangul -AD 1910 – 1945: Japanese colonization -AD 1950: Korean War (South vs. North) -AD 1980: Kwangju Massacre -AD 1992: First civilian government -Present -Language: 500 years -Democracy: 60 years -Civilian government: 23 years Ch. 1: Introduction -Language -Social behavior that reflects underlying cultural patterns -Linguistic system and its use -Society -Community, nation, broad groping of people with common tradition, intuition, and collective activities / interests. -Culture -Complex whole hat includes knowledge, belief, art, moral and custom -Brooks (1975) -Big culture ‘C’ : formal, society, politics -Small culture ‘c’ : daily life -Seelye (1994) AAAS 311 – Midterm Review -All aspects of human life -Relationship -Language and culture -Anthropological linguistics -Linguistic anthropology -Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (1956): language doesn’t just reflect culture, but also shapes it. -Language and society -Social linguistics -Hymes (1974) -Language vs. power: age gender, kinship, status -Language vs. solidarity: intimacy, distance -I am sorry vs. I apologize -Evolution of Korean Language -Monolingual: influenced from China, Japan and the U.S. -Preserve Korean culture and society in tact -Vocabulary -Pure Korean (30%): unsophisticated -Sino Korean (65%): formality, sophisticated -Loan word (5%): modern / stylish -90% from English (20,000 words) -Metaphorical expressions -Maxim -Proverb -Idiom -Slang e.g. “kwi meok-ta” “someone becomes deaf” -Sentence structure -Subject, Object, verb -Agglutinative -Honorific -Noun, verb, particle (subject / object), pronoun, vocab -Communicative patterns -Honorific vs. non-honorific -Age, social status, rank -Collectivism vs. individualism -We vs. I -Speech style -6 different speech styles -Saving social face -Concerns how others think of them -Socio-cultural dynamism -Why “honorific”? -Different class system -Three kingdom, Koryo, Chosun -Family structure AAAS 311 – Midterm Review -Extended family -Nuclear family -Egalitarianism, individualism -Power vs. solidarity Ch. 2: Invention and Use of the Korean Alphabet -Invention of Hangul -King Sejong (1443) -Jiphyunjon (1446) -Hunminjungum -Correct sounds for the instruction of the people -Design principle -Consonants (17): 5 basic (K, N, M, S, NG) -Vowels (11): heaven, earth, man -Tone (no tone in the beginning) -Controversies -King Sejong or scholar -Letter shape: door or Chinese -Why created? -Replace Chinese -Give people a tool for literacy -Orthographic principles -Alphabetic writing system with first consonant -Vowel: vertical and horizontal -C on the bottom: Patchim (받침) -Left to right, top to bottom -Morphophonemic -Same spelling with different pronunciation -Before 1993, write as it is pronounced -Spacing -Computer use: 2500 key words Ch. 3: “Standard” Language and “Cultured” Language -North Korean -Cultured language -Munhwa -South Korean -Standard language -Pyojun -Historical review in NK -1945-1954: morphophonemic -1950: Korean war -1954-1966: Divided orthography (writing system) -1966-present: Pyungyang-centered -Eradication of foreign characters including Chinese -Kim Tu-Bong: prominent linguistic pattern AAAS 311 – Midterm Review -Linguistic differences in NK and SK -Syntax and morphology -NK: frequent use of plural ‘tul’ -Stylistic (NK) -Short sentences: militant emotion -Commands and exclamation -Emphatic with repetition -Spoken language -Alphabetical order -SK: k kk -NK: k – h kk -Vocabulary -SK: oksusu (corn) -NK: kangnengi (corn) -Phonetics and phonology -NK ‘L’ sound, ‘N’ sound, ‘ss’ ending. -‘Libal’ hair-cutting -‘Nyeja’ women -‘Wonssu’ enemy Ch. 4: Korean in Contact with Chinese -Hanja: Sino-Korean: 65% -Chinese characters -Sino-Japanese -Coinage -Why borrow from China? -Chinese culture (similar) -Mono-syllabic (one word = one definition) -Close contact -Three layers of Sino-Korean -Chinese: Confucian classic, history, literary works. -Chayun ‘nature’ -Sino-Japanese -‘Ipku’ entrance -‘Chukku’ soccer -Coinage -‘Ilgi’ weather -Language purification -Use only pure-korean, not using Sino-Korean -SK: failure -NK: success -Origin of Sino-Korean -B.C. 194: Wiman Chosun -Unified Shilla: Tang Dynasty -Koryo: Kwangjo (958) -Civil service exam AAAS 311 – Midterm Review -Chosun: Confucianism Ch. 5: Korean in Contact with Japanese -Ancient contact -Three kingdom -Diplomatic relationship between Paekche through Buddhism (AD 552) -Unified Shilla -Chosun -Colonial period -Extermination of Korean Culture -No Korean language (spoken/written) in public places -No Korean name (Japanese names officially) -No Korean culture (no traditional dances) -Coping with aftermath -Eliminate Japanese influence -Omuraisu, udon, soba, tempura -Kaban, sodensai, kuruma -Replace or change Japanese words -Obento -> pyontto -> tosirak -Hanafuda -> hwattu -Kukmin hakkyo -> chotung hakkyo (초등학교) -Japanese in Korean today (contemporary) -Japanese origin not in a dictionary -Japanese origin disguised -Chapchi, sinmun -Imported western words from Japanese -Arubaitu (german) -Professional terminology -Tailoring, hairdressing, painting, architecture -Idiomatic expressions -Heavy mouth (입이무겁다) Ch. 6: Sound Symbolism in Korean -Intro -Onomatopoeia, idiophone, mimetics -Sounds by animals and other objects -Cuckoo, oink, meow, bang -Gl (light) -Glitter, glow, gleam -Sw (wide/smooth) -Swarm, swing -P, t, k (motion) – stop consonants/sounds. -Pop, punt, crack -Sound symbolism (two types) -Uysungo by sound AAAS 311 – Midterm Review -Uytaeo by manner/shape -Three types -Change of initial consonant -Ping, pping, phing -Kamkam, kkam kkam, kham kham -Change of vowel -haha vs. hihi -Yang: a, o : bright, small, cute -Yin: e, u : dark, big, heavy -Meanings associated with final consonant -Phing (round), Phik (abrupt), Sal sal (smooth) Ch. 7: Korean Proverbs -Proverb: relatively simple idiomatic expressions – reveal cultural and social aspects of a language. -It deviates from its original structure and undergoes semantic change -Korean examples (Pg. 80) -Korean personality -Importance of the use of language (pattern) -말 한마디에 천냥빚을 갚는다 -If you can talk well, you can repay 1,000 dollars -Maintenance and promotion of “face” -냉수마시고 이빨 쑤신다 -Using a toothpick even after drinking ice water “saving face” -Pursuit of immediate profit -I would rather have a small piece of candy now, than have a box of honey later -Harm consciousness -구관이 명관이다 -Oldest place is usually the best -Old friends = best friends Ch. 8: Korean Terms for Calenda
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