CHEM 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Hydrohalogenation, Molecular Mass, Addition Reaction

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Monday, January 30, 2017
8:28 AM
Unsymmetrical addition reaction of alkenes
o Markovnikov's Rule: when an unsymmetrical molecule HQ (e.g. HCl, HOH, HF) reacts with
an unsymmetrical alkene, the hydrogen atom from the HQ becomes attached to the
unsaturated carbon atom that already has the most hydrogen atoms
o Two types of unsymmetrical addition reactions
Hydration: addition of water
H2SO4 is used as a catalyst
When adding sulfuric acid, add HOH
Addition of H-X (X=F,Cl,Br,I)
Polymerization of alkenes: addition polymers
o Polymers are macromolecules in which small units (monomers) are repeated again and
Examples: Polyethylene, polypropylene, polyester, etc.
o Polymers are huge molecules so their molecular formulas are not written
o The simplest repeating unit in parenthesis with "n" as subscript to show the number of
Alkene polymerization
o Alkenes and substituted alkenes form addition polymers
o An addition polymer is a polymer in which the monomers simply "add together" with no
other products formed besides the polymer
o Addition polymerization is similar to the addition reactions described previously except that
there is no reactant other than the alkene or substituted alkene
Example: formation of polyethylene
Butadiene-based addition polymers
o Polymerization of 1,2-butadiene results in a butadiene polymer
o These polymers contain contain double bonds (unsaturated polymers)
o The polymers are flexible
Addition copolymers
o A copolymer is a polymer in which two different monomers are present
Example: saran wrap
a polymer (chloroethene) and 1,1-dichloroethene
Wednesday, February 1, 2017
8:31 AM
o Alkyne: unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one or more carbon-carbon triple
o Alkyne functional group: C:::C
o Naming: names end with suffix -yne
o General formula: CnH2n-2
o Simplest alkynes: C2H2,C3H4
IUPAC nomenclature for alkynes
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