Democratization and the Democracy Generation
two aspects that are intricately woven into each other
1. Procedural Democracy
peoples’ voice in government can be manifested in many diﬀerent ways
protests - petition
election - key important criteria to democratization
before, even election is highly unfree and unfair
fair competition between parties
does not guarantee that outcomes of democracy will be fair
minimal deﬁnition of democracy, because democratic procedures don't change the
aspect of skewed democracy in practice
many countries still have elections, but they are rigged
to guarantee a fair amount of fairness, basic civil liberties need to be
2. Substantive Democracy
what are the other freedoms that make democracy possible?
broader political coalition — more chances for political change
checks and balances against the president (autocrats who change the rules all the
so that one ruler doesn’t get all the power
shift of military power — foreign intervention?
how can we elect people who will re-write constitution
mobilization of people— have to protest and go and make voice heard (?)
demographic of this: mainly people who are subject to injustices and have
intellectual students — education, thinking, more resources in
terms of personal networks, time
more exposed to information domestically and internationally
ﬁrst tier of people who demand political change
need more people, across the classes
socio, economic, political, and international conditions for democratization
Modernization Theory -
a process that brings about political change.
what do we mean by modernization?
shifted from traditional agrarian to industrial society
opportunities for people in farming to migrate
urbanization - creation of cities. residence and workplace is concentrated in urban
mass amounts of people are surrounded by each other.
making a lot of money makes a democracy
standard of living is elevated
kids are able to be educated
Economic Development and democratization, the middle class issue (SES)