● Reticular activating system- (ROS) “secretary”- receives messages from the senses- prioritizes sensory
information so you are not overwhelmed so you are not bombarded.
● Thalamus - relays motor and sensory signals to the cerebral cortex. doesn’t do your sense of smell
● Limbic System
○ Hypothalamus- biological drives, regulation of hunger/thirst/temperature/circadian
rhythm/sleep/sex/--Life sustaining drives
■ Simon LeVay-- find differences in brain structure based on sexual orientation. Brains
from dead people, thin slices of hypothalamus, found that part of hypothalamus is
smaller in gay men.
■ Small sample size, all died from aids which changes the brain, people failed to replicate.
○ Amygdala- fear/aggression responses, shows sex difference: men’s is bigger than women’s
○ Hippocampus- memory transfer. short-->long term…. If doesn’t happen: stroke, infection,
meningitis… affects ability to make long term memory
■ H.M.- lateral hippocampal damage when he was young. Great difficulty learning new
■ Procedural memory.. Knitting or bike riding
● HM didn’t know he had procedural memory but he did
■ DORY!! She has hippocampal damage.. Fish version of HM
● Cerebral cortex- what makes us human: thinking, reasoning, problem solving
○ ¼ made of sensory and motor projection areas. Where info goes after thalamus
○ Left controls right, right controls left
○ Motor homunculus- motor senses in body are not proportional. Way more brain devoted to face
and hands-- particularly thumbs-- rather than bigger portions of body. Hands and face.
○ Association areas (nonprimary areas)
■ Apraxia- problems with coordinated movement- not paralysis, can move fine but can’t do
a series of coordinated action