Psychology - A science of mind
- Psychology vs. Psychobable
A science of behavior
- Is it simply common sense?
Major Theoretical Perspectives:
- Psychodynamic -> combination of nature to nurture. First year of childhood to shape personality.
-> Depends on gratification you get.
- Cognitive -> focus on thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. Ex. Conductive ( and inductive
reasoning (generalization: reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.)
- Social-Cultural -> Difficult to move away from our context b/c we’re very social. Ex. Breastfeeding
- Behavioral (Learning)
We are not all clinicians!
- experiemental, cognitive
- industrial organizational -> work conditions, human gene interface, sexual harassment
- Psychometric -> measure the mind.
- Social -> Why people are attracted to each other, obedient, judgemental
- Behavioral Neuroscience
- Operational definitions -> An operational definition, also called functional definition, defines
something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of the specific process or set of validation tests used
to determine its presence and quantity. An example of an operational definition might be defining the
weight of an object in terms of the numbers that appear when that object is placed on a weighing scale.
The weight then, is whatever results from following the (weight) measurement procedure, which should
be repeatable by anyone. This is in contrast to operationalization that uses theoretical definitions.
- Reliance on empirical evidence (Derived from naturalistic observation or from experimental
- Predictions must be “testable”
- Case Studies
- Ex. Genie (mentally retarded) did not learn language like us.
- Set of Twins. Brian had a brother. 2 years old. Parents decided they should be circumcised.
Charge a little too strong so cut penis right off of one twin. One twin without a penis and the
other has one still intact. Parents met with John Money so the twin without the penis can be a
girl. Renamed him Brenda. Brian and Brenda. Brenda socialized great. Stopped recording on
them when they were 14 since they thought everything was good. Brenda was miserable. She
was called a caveman and she didn’t like dresses or girly stuff. Renamed David Greybeard.
- Survey Method -> Research on sex. Naturally people tell the truth.
-> Observational Studies
-> Ex. Jane Goodall and David Greybeard
Tests and Surveys
- Important Terms:
-> Standardized - design the survey and give it to thousand people and then do analysis.
Procedure to give it is precise.
-> Norms - Percentiles. Gives some idea of how you did.
-> Reliability - Ex Scales. One day you weigh 135 and another day you weigh 110
-> Validity - Ex. Scales. Weigh 137 every day. Designed to measure. Ex. - Test of Depression.
Compare questions on a test. Odds and Evens. Depressed kind of behavior.
-> Representative Samples. Should be diverse. Include people from different geographic regions.
-> Bias. Formulation of test.
-> Correlation does not equal causation.
-> Important Terms:
-> Positive Correlation (Ex. Income and Education)
-> Negative Correlation (Ex. Education and time in Jail)
-> Correlation coefficient - Measure of Correlation Strength
- Important Terms
-> Independent Variable
-> Dependent Variable
Issues in Research
- Is the result important?
- Very large sample sizes might statistically
- Ethnics of Research
- Animal work - Ex. Harlow monkey attachment research -> Separated baby monkeys from their
mothers. Isolation made the monkeys turn out bad. They were self-abusive (ex. bite their own fingers),
they became aggressive and violent.
Genetics, Important Terms:
- Patterns of Inheritance. 12 or more genes that make people their height. Genes work
in combination with other genes.
- Chromosomes. Different creatures organized in with different numbers of chromosomes
- Range of reaction and Heritability
- Height is influenced by environment. Has a broad range of reaction. Needs to be
- Eye color is not so it has a low range of reaction.
- Female two x chromosomes
- Karyotype (Down Syndrome)
- (1809-1882) theory of natural selection: also described as a survival of the fittest.
- His idea was that forces selected for and against various traits that varied within a population.
Evolution - Natural Selection, rests on 3 ideas
-> Variability in a characteristic
-> Characteristic must be inherited
- Modern day Example of natural selection: Industrial Melanism
Ex. Moths. Two Color variations. The variations are genetic. Fitness is relative and changes as the
- Speculative hominid family tree developed by Ian Tattersall. Model is not linear but a branching tree.
Why are we alone?
All Species have the same problem:
- Survival of offspring.
- Solutions vary
-> Precocious Species( Ex. Reptiles Come with a lot of pre-wired behavior. Have lots of
babies at a time. Dozens to hundreds. Birth Investment is low. Don’t guard them very well. Don’t teach
them to hunt. They don’t feed them.
-> Dependent Species Ex. Humans Don’t come with too many pre-wired behavior. Not
none but not too many. Not very many at a time. Birth Investment is high.
Ethology and Comparative Psychology
- Ethology - branch of biology that studies animal behavior under natural conditions.
- Comparative Psychology - a psychological that compares the behavior of various species.
Important Ethological Concepts:
- Species specific behaviors - Ex. Hominids. Characteristic is we walk upright.
- Sign Stimuli/releasing mechanisms (something in the environment - a sound, sight, odor -
trigger a stereotypical behavior ->
- Fixed Action Patterns - biologically driven, stereotypical triggered by sign stimuli/releasing
Ex. Red color is sign stimuli for some kind of fish. Will attack w.e is red.
“Baby-ness” cues may act as releasing mechanisms for nurturing behavior.
Are there releasing mechanisms for sexual attraction in humans?
Traditionally, ethologists said “Yes” (Morris, Eible-Eibesfeldt) More recently anthropologits have said,
- Supernormal Stimuli - work better. sometimes they are an exaggeration or just different.
Stronger or more frequent. Ex. Fake eggs that were colored and birds took better care of the eggs .
Bambi is a supernnormal stimuli because he is cuter than a normal deer.
- Behavioral Systems
- Bee Dances
- Human Language
- Sensitive Periods
- Imprinting (Konrad Lorenz and Friends) Shortly after they hatch they will attach and
recognize the first animal they see. They become like Konrad as they grow up.
- Human Language -> Bonding - Shortly after birth infant slowly attach to their parents
and the parents slowly attach to their infant.
Biologically Based Behaviors (?)
- Personal Space (?) - Personal Territory - Attraction to Facial Symmetry - Bilaterally Symmetrical. More symmetrical we are, the more
attractive. Means we developed well.
- Interpreting Facial Expressions
Is the interpretation of human emotion universal (biologically driven)?
Brain divided into Sematic and Autonomic
- Neurons and the Brain
->There are many types of neurons: For ex.: Motor Neurons, Sensory Neurons, Interneurons
-> Action Potential travels through Axon Membrane
-> Ions diffuse towards the membrane
-> Motor Neurons have terminal ends. They “Fire” like a gun. It takes a while until they could fire
How do electrical signals cross the synapse?
- Synaptic Transmission -> consists the axis of one terminal and the dendrites of another. Dendrites
belong to post-synaptic cell and the axis belongs to the pre-synaptic cell.
- Neurons “communicate” with each other
-> Serotonin - Treat depression with drugs that affect serotonin. Cells that do one thing to the
brain and do other unrelated things. They’re involved in appetite, sleep, temperature regulation, and a
little bit of pain reception
-> Dopamine - Memory, Voluntary movement, Muscle Movement, Nervous System Arousal.
Theoretically involved in Schizophrenia. Parkinson’s Disease - trouble with muscle movement.
-> Acetylcholine - Also with muscle movement. Especially memory (Short-term and Long-term)
People have difficult making new memories
-> Norepinephrine - Mood Disorders, Mental Disorders (Schizophrenia)
-> GABA - inhibitory, prevents neurons from firing into the brain
-> Glutamate - Role in Long-term memory, Pain Perception
->Endorphins - Major role in pain perception. Released when injured. Help people not
remember pain. Released using neurotransmitters also when people exercise.
- The Hindbrain
-> Medulla - Breathing, Heart Rate, Reflexes
-> Pons - Role in screaming, integration in facial reaction
-> Cerebellum - involved in balance and movement
- The MidBrain -> sits behind the hindbrain
-> Reticular Activating System - sounds, sight, odor
- The Forebrain -> Planning, Problem Solving, Memory, Perception
-> Thalamus - Sensation, Sensory Impulses
-> Hypothalamus - involved in biological urges, body temperature regulation, sex
-> Limbic System
-> Amygdala - evaluating incoming sensory information
-> Hippocampus - Memory Switch. Short-Term and Long-Term
-> Corpus Callosum - Send signals to each other and act as a unit. Connected to hemispheres of
the brain. Vary in size. Women’s are more variable than Men’s.
-> Basal Ganglia - Parkinson’s Disease, Muscle Movement
-> Cerebrum - Higher function of the brain. Cortex of the brain.
-> Projection (primary) areas: -> Sensory projection areas
-> Motor projection areas
-> Association Ares (nonprimary areas)
- Apraxia -> disorders of movement, ex. from a stroke
- Agnosia -> disorders of sensory interpretations, loss of ability to recognize objects,
persons, sounds, shapes, smells, etc.
- Aphasia -> disorders of language
-> Types of Aphasia
- Expressive Aphasia (nonfluent)
- Broca’s area
- Receptive Aphasia (fluent)
- Wernicke’s area
- Hemisphere specialization “Do we really have two brains?”
Left hemisphere controls right part of the body and Right Hemisphere controls left part of body.
- Right-handers - More lateralized to their right
- Left-handers - lateralized to left
Men are more lateral and women bilateral.
Video on Anorexia Development - “Dying to be Thin”
- If career is on the line, you will do whatever to gain it
- Eating disorders are common in the dance world
- half of people w/anorexia die
- severe osteoporosis, heart failure,
- karen carpenter died of heart failure at age 32 because of malnutrition
- every 5 years anorexia increases by 36 % since the 1950s
- models’ bodies weigh 25% less than the average American Woman
- It is a society thing to be skinny. People look to society to affect how they look
- Anorexia is set back hundreds of years
- Being thin has different reasons: spiritual, conquered appetite
- 3 out of 10 girls will develop anorexia
- People are exceptionally perfectionistic. Worry about the consequences of their behavior. Do not want
to be wrong.
- Brain Chemical Serotonin has role in affecting mood and appetite
- Dieting even starvation to deal with serotonin and relieve anxiety
- Brain reacts however and produces more serotonin so there is no escape
- Being sexually abused is not uncommon in patients with anorexia
- Some will diet themselves to get them to be a less appealing small size if sexually abused
- 15 years without menstruating at age 30, caused bones to become that of a 17 year old.
- Dancers are at risk of osteoporosis
- Spreading to all racial and social classes
- Many women are unhappy with their bodies. Few will say they are
- Pressure for women to maintain their body weight already begins from age 9-10
- Most people with Bolemia benefit from PsychoTherapy
- Binging food causes food to fall into the small intestine and then causes person to eat more
- 50% of patients with Bolemia are cured while the rest are substantially recovered but takes years to
Bola - helps during birth. Support women during labor and delivery. Work out birth plan in advance.
Infertility; a problem we can fix
- Infertility Issues:
-> Safety of drugs
-> High rate of multiple births
-> Ethical issues
- Chlamydia can cause damage to the fallopian tubes.
- Increased rate or eating disorders can also lead to fertility disorders
- Infertility drugs cause women to ovulate more. Maybe 10-12 per cycle. (higher rate of multiple births)
- One of the major risks of multiple births Is babies born prematurely.
- Cupboard Theories of Attachment
-> Freud -- Said babies will attach through touch
-> Behaviorism - associate through sound
- Importance of Touch
-> Harlow’s work with infant monkeys. Studied infant monkeys reared in isolation.
- monkeys in isolation do not like other monkeys. Develop self-stimulating behaviors.
They bite themselves. Overall they turn out badly.
- in primapes there is an instinctive need to cling to another body.
- infant stays with mothers he knows 22 hours a day. Contact Comfort.
- How do psychologists measure attachments?
-> Paper and pencil tests
-> The strange situation (Ainsworth) Mary Ainsworth says baby has to be able to crawl. To
access the quality of the child’s attachment to their care giver.
- Return of the caregiver is known as the reunion
- The Second Reunion is known as
- Stranger Anxiety
- Mother leaves, baby shows Separation Anxiety
- Attachment Patterns
-> Secure - healthiest pattern
-> Resistant (anxious-ambivalent)
-> Disorganized-disoriented - babies of this class have stiff posture. They do not react at all.
Associated with long-term problems with development
- What happens when a baby does not have opportunity to attach?
-> Harlow: Work with motherless monkeys
-> Spitz: “Failure-to-thrive” - studied babies in orphanages. also prison babies.
-> Skeels: Longitudinal study of early deprivation - Instant cognition tests. see If babies are
eligible for adoption.
Cognitive Development - John Paiget (Father of Cognitive Development)
- started his career doing I.Q. tests.
- Cognitive Change
- Accomodation ->Equilibrium
-> Cognitive Structures
Periods of Cognitive Development
- Sensorimotor (birth -2 years) initially babies are supposed to be self-centered. Non-reflective
- Preoperational (2-7 years) Think about the world intuitively instead of logically. Now they are
reflective. They can talk which is representation.
-> The Three Mountains Task
-> Conservation of Liquid
- Concrete Operational (7-11 years)
- Formal Operational (11 years and on)
Theories of Moral Development
-> Phallie Period
- Boys superego forms during the Oedipus conflict.
-> Little boys are sexually attracted to their moms. Afraid their dads are going to
find out. Ultimately oppress themselves from their moms. It’s irrational.
- Girls superego forms during the Electra conflict.
-> Little girls feel like they have been sent to the world ill-equipped. They are
angry at their mothers and blame it on them. They have penis envy. They then identify with their mom
-> Also interested in moral thinking.
-> Stages of Moral Reasoning
- Moral Realism (4-7 years)
-> They think their parents can tell what is going on in their minds.
-> They do something naughty and then something bad happens.
- Morality of Reciprocity (10 years and up)
-> Like Freud, he thought boys had a stronger morality than girls.
-> Stressed the importance of peers.
-> Thought Paiget’s theories were too broad
-> Assessed moral reasoning using a series of moral dilemmas
- Heinz dilemma
-> Wife was dying of cancer.
-> Was not a wealthy guy. Gathered money he could get together but was only
-> Dilemma: Should he break in and steal the drug? Issue is yes he should or no
-> Developed a hierarchical stage theory
-> Original sample was entirely male.
- Kohlberg’s Stages
-> Level 1 Pre-conventional
- Punishment Obedience Orientation
Ex. I’m not going to cheat on the exam because I’m going to be kicked out of the university
- Maret Place Orientation Ex. A this or that. Little kids: I’ll clean my room if I can get a new skateboard. I won’t hit my brother
anymore if I can watch T.V.
-> Level 2 Conventional
- Good Boy/Good Girl Orientation
Ex. If I get caught my parents will be so disappointed in me.
- Social Order
Ex. Society made the rules so I’ll just stick to them. I’m not going to cheat because the university has a
rule about it.
-> Level 3 Post-Conventional
- Social Contract -> We can alter the rules.
- Universal Ethical (Principled) Orientation -> Don’t care what other people think. Don’t
care about the rules.
- Gilligan’s View of Moral Reasoning
-> Believes there are gender differences in moral reasoning.
- Males see the world as a hierarchy of power
- Females see the world as a series of interconnected relationships.
- Developmental Understanding Death
- Kids do not understand that death is universal. It happens to all living things.
- Death and Sleep ARE NOT the same thing.
- Do stages of dying really exist?
-> Kubler-Ross’s Stages
- Denial - Terminal Illness
- Anger - Terminal Illness, could be directed at doctors, family God.
- Bargaining - If I go to church every day I won’t die.
- Acceptance - Strong Faith
- Phases of Grieving
-> Avoidance - First days after death people are numb. They plan a funeral and then they’re
done. They haven’t really processed it yet.
-> Bottom-up processing - Theory says there a tiny pieces like hue, brightness, saturation. Build
little tiny pieces into a whole. Enrichment. Adapted to see things like happy faces, sad faces, and anxious
-> Top-down processing
-> Absolute Thresholds
-> Difference Thresholds - Difference between quality and quantity
- Teen Buzz. As you get older your aging ears cannot pick it up
- Signal Detection Theory
-> Hit - There was a tone
-> Correct Negative -
-> False Alarm - Thought there was a tone but there wasn’t.
-> Miss - There was a tone but you didn’t raise your hand. - The Senses
-> Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses - Tell whether your head is upright.
-> Hearing - Sounds enter from outer-ear to auditory canal
-> Touch -
-> Smell (Olfaction) - Important Concepts:
- Pheromones (Found in Sweat) -> Pheromones are important for some species
-> Menstrual Synchrony
-> Sexual pheromones in humans
- If you can’t smell the you probably can’t taste very well
-> Taste - Taste and Smell go together
- Basic Taste Sensations
-> Sour, Salty, Sweet, Bitter
-> Vision: Sensation vs. Perception
- Mainstream View
- Sensation + Experience = Perception
- Ecological Approach (Gibson)
- (Gibson) - Direct Perception -> Invariants, Affordances - What the environment offers
- How we see
-> All we receive is light
-> Transduction occurs
-> Our sensory experience
- Hue, Brightness, Saturation
Topics in Visual Sensation
- Trichromatic Theory
- Receptor Types
-> Rods - Periphery, Also for seeing in light, Cones types (Fovea) - Most prevalence in the
center of the retina
- Depth Perception (the role of redundancy)
- Binocular cues
- Motion parallax
Monocular Cues (Pictorial Cue)
- Interposition -> Occluding something or someone. Ex. Girl sitting in front of another girl is blocking the
face of the girl behind
- Linear Perspective
- Relative Size
- Texture gradients
- Relative Height
Aging and Dementia
Dementia - A disorder involving a loss of memory plus impairment in at least one other cognitive
function, which is sever enough to interfere with activities of daily living and represents a decline from
Clinical Features of Dementia
3 major domains characterize dementia:
- Neuropsychological Impairments
-> Amnesia, aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, executive disfunction
- Psychiatric Symptoms/Behavioral Disturbances -> Depression, anxiety, hallucinations
- Difficulty with activities of daily life
- Is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and brain pathology
-> Neuronal death, plaques, and tangles (Happens in healthy individuals too!)
- Course of AD is gradual
-> Neurodegeneration starts 20-30 years before symptoms first appear,
- However diagnosis can only be confirmed after post-
Alzheimer’s Disease & the Brain
- Changes in Neurotransmitters and Alzheimer’s Disease:
-> Reduced acetylcholine
-> Treatment: Cholinesterase inhibitors (Atricept)
- Alone or with psychosocial interventions
- 2 leading type of dementia
- Accounts for 30-40% of cases
- Unlike AD, vascular dementia tend to have an abrupt onset
Vascular Dementia and the Brain
- Brain volume decreases in gray matter and white matter
- Particularly, prefrontal areas
- Changes in Neurotransmitters and Vascular Dementia:
-> Changes in acetylcholine
-> Serotonin and Dopamine
- 2 Views:
->Absence of disease (healthy aging) vs. average trajectory
-> What normal aging is not:
- An impediment to daily functioning
Body Rhythms and Mental Studies
- Sleep and Dreaming
Sleep Deprivation - Causes Health Problems. Stress on the immune system. Anxiety Disorders. Mood
Disorders. One of the leading causes of car accidents. People who are sleepy are poorly judged about
how sleepy they are.
Sleep Questions from the Nation Sleep Foundation
1. During sleep, your brain rests. False
2. You cannot learn to function normally with one or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you need.
3. Boredom makes you feel sleepy, even if you had enough sleep . False
4. Resting in bed with your eyes closed cannot satisfy your body’s need for sleep. False
7. The older you get, the fewer hours of sleep you need. False
8. Most people don’t know when they are sleepy. True
9. Raising the volume of your radio will help you stay awake while driving. False
10. Sleep disorders are mainly due to worry or psychological problems. True
11. The human body never adjusts to night shift. False 12. Most sleep disorders go away even without treatment. False
- Definitions of Sleep - A condition of body and mind such as that which typically recurs for several hours
every night, in which the nervous system is relatively inactive, the eyes closed, the postural muscles
relaxed, and consciousness practically suspended
- Why we sleep
- Why we dream - protect and distract our brains from the outside world and allow the body to rest
- Sleep Disorders
- Developmental Differences in Sleep
- Sleep Stages
-> Alpha Waves
-> Stage 1 - Easy to wake up
-> Stage 2
- Sleep Spindles (A sleep spindle is a burst of brain activity visible on an
EEG(electroencephalographic) that occurs during stage 2 sleep. It consists of 12-14 Hz waves that occur
for at least 0.5 seconds. They characterize the initial descent into non-REM sleep)
-> Stage 3
- Delta Waves -> Very Hard to wake up. delta rhythm: the normal brainwave in the
encephalogram of a person in deep dreamless sleep; occurs with high voltage and low frequency (1 to 4
hertz) a high amplitude brain wave in humans with a frequency of 1–4 hertz which can be recorded with
an electroencephalogram (EEG) and is usually associated with slow-wave sleep (SWS). The slowest type
of brain wave. Stage 3 or Non-REM. amplitudes greater than 75 microvolts peak to peak (the difference
between the most negative and positive points of the wave). Also known as Delta Activity.
-> Stage 4 - Stage when you need an alarm clock. Sleep Walking. Sleep Talking. Night Terrors.
-> REM 1,2,3,4, then 3,2,1, REM. Rapid Eye Movement. Dream Sleep.
Why do we Sleep?
Predators sleep more and prey sleep less.
- Sleep Deprivation - If people try to lean people off of sleep deprivation it results poorly. We need sleep
to function properly
- Sleep as a restorative Process -> Replenishment of Certain Hormones. High Level of growth hormones
when sleeping. Body Is restoring itself when sleeping.
- Sleep as a clock driven process
-> Circadian Rhythm (may be driven by ganglion cells in the eyes)
- Circadian (about every 24 hours)
- Setting the circadian clock is called “photoentrainment” -> The entrainment of an organism's circadian
rhythm to the pattern of light and dark in its environment
- Ganglion cells in the eye that may be responsible contain the pigment “melanopsin” -> Melanopsin is a
photopigment found in specialized photosensitive ganglion cells of the retina that are involved in the
regulation of circadian rhythms, pupillary light reflex, and other non-visual responses to light NOT
MELATONIN (Endocrine System)
1. - “Melatonin” secreted by the pineal gland, levels are affected by light levels. A hormone secreted by the
pineal gland that inhibits melanin formation and is thought to be concerned with regulating the
-> Rises during sleep in a darkened room
-> Falls in a lightened room upon waking
- Sleep as an evolutionary relic Sleep Disorders
- Insomnia - most common sleep disorder. about 22-35% people have insomnia in a given population.
Mostly college students. 2 types. Primary - Hard for you to sleep. Secondary - Can’t Sleep. Causes
problems to Immune System. More prone to viruses, bacteria. Increases Stress level. People who are
sleepy do not think as clearly. Do not adjust correctly when driving. Leading cause of accident. People
are not good at judging at all when they are sleepy or not. Think they’re okay most of the time.
- Narcolepsy - Fall asleep uncontrollably. Dramatic - Can be doing regular activities and suddenly fall into
a deep sleep. People may mistake people with this disorder to have fainted. Candidate Chromosome or
- Obstructive Sleep Apnea - Tend to see it mostly in men. Mid to late adulthood. 40s, 50s, 60s. Usually
overweight. Typically upper torso. Lay back and put pressure on throat. Chance of not starting back up
to breathing is increased. More than 10 seconds without breathing.
- Sleepwalking - Night Terrors -> Happen during deep sleep. Think they had a really bad dream
and thought they were going to die. Probably don’t remember the dream but absolutely terrified.
Anxiety to sleep increased dramatically. Mostly happens in Western culture.
-> seem to be awake since they would do things they would typically do when they’re awake.
- Driving Tips
-> What “may” work
-> Get sleep the night before
-> Avoid Alcohol
-> Have travel companion help you stay awake - be active
-> Make frequent stops at rest areas and pull over at the first signs of fatigue
-> Take a brisk walk
-> Take a nap
-> Drink Caffeine
-> Have someone drive with you
-> Let someone else who has slept and is alert to do driving
-> Set reasonable travel objectives
-> What does NOT Work
-> Driving Faster
-> Toughing it out
-> Turning up the volume on your radio
-> Opening your car window
-> Driving Slower
Why do we Dream?
- Are dreams expressions of unconscious wishes? (Freud)
- Latent -> Something deeply hidden. Meaning of Dream. Underlying meaning of manifest
content. Latent content of dreams is suppressed and hidden by the subconscious mind in order to
protect the individual from thoughts and feelings that are hard to cope with
- Manifest -> . The actual literal subject-matter of the dream
- Do dreams function to solve problems?
- Are dreams a byproduct of mental housekeeping?
- Are dreams the result of brain activity?
-> Activation Synthesis Theory - the physiological processes of the brain cause dreams.
- Most of fetal sleep is REM sleep.
- How does sleep change over development? - infant sleep
- Adult sleep
- Sleep disorders (more common in childhood)
-> Contributing Factor: Children’s understanding of sleep and dreams
SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
- SIDS is the sudden unexplained death of an infant under one year of age
- Incidence is currently .57 per thousand babies
- Leading cause of infant death
- Peak of incidence is around 3 months of age
- Most likely to occur at night
Infants at higher risk
- Formula fed infants
- Infants who are placed on stomach to sleep
- Infants whose mothers smoke while pregnant
- Infants in an environment with smokers
- Infants whose mothers received poor prenatal care
- Male infants
- Premature infants
- Infants who sleep alone (in another room)
Causes of SIDS
- Basically Unknown
- Genetic vulnerability combined with environmental risk (nature/nurture)
- No honey for babies under the age of one
Cross Cultural Psychology and the Study of Sleep
- Our culture’s sleeping practices are different than others
- Circadian (about every 24 hours)
- Ultradian (More often than once a day)
- Infradian (less often than once a day)
Does the menstrual cycle affect mood or thought?
-> Emotional Changes
- Also called Pavlovian conditioning
- Learner is forming a new association, not learning a new behavior
- Allows organisms to prepare for environmental events by learning about the relationship between
- US (Unconditioned Stimulus): any stimulus that innately elicits a reflexive UCR
- UCR (Unconditioned response): a reflexive, innate response
- CS (Conditioned Stimulus): a stimulus that elicits a CR after pairings with a US
- CR (Conditioned Response): a response elicited by a CS. - Classical Conditioning in dogs (using a light for the conditioning) Dr. Merriweather’s Dog knows that
food is under cover. Dog drools when he is near cover.
Classical Conditioning and Pavlov’s Dogs
-> Before Conditioning
- US = Food
- UR - Salivation (Dog’s mouth waters)
-> After Conditioning
- CS = sound of the bell - condition the dog to drool at the sound of the bell
- CR = Salivation
Classical Conditioning and Little Albert
-> Before Conditioning
- US = Loud Noise
- UR = Fear(Crying)
-> After Conditioning
- CS = Rat
- CR = Fear(Crying)
Important Classical Conditioning Phenomena
- Second-Order Conditioning -> Chains of Conditioned stimulus. Target in doctor situation
- Acquisition - first stages of learning when a response is established
- Extinction -> Keep presenting condition stimulus
- Phobias are created through classical conditioning
- Spontaneous Recovery - recovering from old response
- Generalization - Extend the response to something similar. Albert’s stimulus was rats, and then he
moved to bunnies.
A young child goes to the doctor to receive an immunization. the shot is painful and the child cries. The
next day the child sees the doctor at Target and the child cries. In this example, the doctor is the
Crying is the conditioned response
Following week goes to Target (no doctor) and cries. Target is Second-Order Conditioning.
For puking blue jays what is the conditioned stimulus? Monarch Butterfly
Puff of air causes eyes to blink. Paired with red light flash. Red light alone causes eyes to blink. Eye blink
in response to Red light is CR
Red Light is CS
Discrimination focuses on one condition. (Little albert only fearful of the rat instead of being afraid of
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
- Thorndike and the Law of Effect
-> The Strength of a response is determined by the consequences.
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning and B.F. Skinner
- the idea of operants
- the Skinner box
- Consequences determine if our response is strengthened or weakened
What is Reinforcement and Punishment?
- Reinforcement -> anything that increases the frequency of a behavior.
- Positive Reinforcement - means addition NOT GOOD. Behavior increased
- Negative Reinforcement - took something away and behavior increased
- Punishment -> Anything that decreases the frequency of a behavior - Positive Punishment
- Negative Punishment
A student studies 40 hours for her psychology exam and gets an “A” The “A” acted as ___ on her
studying behavior. E. Cannot Tell without further info
Same question but for next exam she studied 5 hours. B. Positive Punishment. Behavior was decreased
but still got an “A”.
Same question but studied 50 hours. D. Positive Reinforcement
A dog keeps chewing his owner’s shoes. His owner yells at him. The next day the dog chews up even
more shoes. Yelling is ex. of D. Positive Reinforcement.
Same Question but dog doesn’t do it again. Yelling was ex. of B. Positive Punishment
Important Concepts for Instrumental Conditioning
- Discrimination -> only works in specific situations. In classical conditioning, discrimination is the ability
to differentiate between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that have not been paired with an
unconditioned stimulus. For example, if a bell tone were the conditioned stimulus, discrimination would
involve being able to tell the difference between the bell tone and other similar sounds.
- Shaping - reinforcing to get closer to a goal.
- Token Economics - something representative of something. incentive, a system of behavior
modification based on the systematic positive reinforcement of target behavior. The reinforcers are
symbols or tokens that can be exchanged for other reinforcers. Token economy is based on the
principles of operant conditioning and can be situated within applied behavior analysis (behaviorism).
Token economies are applied with children and adults.
Schedules of Reinforcement
- Ratio Schedules
-> Fixed Ratio (Every third time Chimp signs food, give chimp food.)
-> Variable Ratio (Chimp signs water but give food. Reinforce on an average of 3 so sometimes
do after 1 time, after 2 times, then after 4 times.)
- Interval Studies of Reinforcement -> Based on time
-> Fixed Interval - Based on a set amount of time. Ex. Piece of candy every hour
-> Variable Interval -> Random amount of time
Observational Learning and social Learning Theory
- Albert Bandura’s (Father of Observational Infamous “Bobo Doll” Experiments
-> Discovered that children will imitate an adult model. Implications:
- antisocial behaviors may be perpetuated
- Prosocial behaviors may also be perpetuated
- What about TV?
-> Symbolic Modeling (Ex. Kids who are aggressive like to watch that kind of TV.)
Kids more likely to follow behavior they see on TV and games.
- What about spanking?
- way in which we record past events and knowledge
- Acquisition - Have to get material into memory. Acquire it fine but it can still be blanked out if
other 2 aren’t good.
- Storage - Have to keep information.
- Retrieval - Recall the memory.
Information Processing Approach to Memory
- Sensory Register - Large Capacity for a very short Duration - Short Term Memory - We tend to repeat things over and over in our heads. Depending on how
material is organized
- Long Term Memory - Capacity is really large. Capacity is immeasurable. Duration can be years.
Recognition and Free Recall
- Recognition - Access memory
- Free Recall - Not getting any cues or help. Recognize but do you recall their name? Recall the answer
that goes on the blank? On thought exercises, without notes, do you recall the information?
-> Primacy Effect - recall more items that were presented early, that were presented first
-> Recency Effect - Remembering the most recently presented items
Kinds of Long Term Memory
- Procedural - remembering how to do something
- Declarative -
- Semantic - memory from meaning and concepts. memory for what a semantic memory is.
- Episodic. - Memory For events
Explicit (Declarative) With conscious recall
Facts-General Knowledge (Semantic Memory)
Personally Experienced Events (Episodic Memory)
Implicit (nondeclarative) Without conscious recall
Skills - motor and cognitive
Classical and operant