PSYCH 210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Only Time, Puberty, Secondary Sex Characteristic

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6 Feb 2017
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Module 3.1: Physical Growth and Change
3.1- Physical Growth in Infancy
Although the greatest increase in height and weight occurs during the first year of life,
children continue to grow throughout infancy and toddlerhood
Infants integrate their behavior through the development of various rhythms and states,
and within a year they develop the ability to sleep through the night
Rhythms: repetitive, cyclical patterns of behavior
State: degree of awareness an infant display to both internal and external stimulation
Rapid eye moment (REM) sleep: this period of sleep that is found in older children and
adults and is associated with dreaming
3.2- Physical Growth during the Preschool and Middle Childhood Years
Slow and steady growth overall, economics and culture effect the patterns of growth in
children
By age 2, the average child in the US weighs around 25-30 pounds and is close to 36
inches tall
By 6, 46 pounds and 46 inches tall
In middle school
o Weight changes
o Height changes
o Only time when girls are usually taller than boys
3.3- Physical Changes in Adolescence
Can grow quickly within only a few months
Puberty: the period of maturation during which the sexual organs mature
o Begins earlier for girls usually around age 11 and boys around 13 but varies
o Influences: nutrition, health, environmental stress
Primary sex characteristics: characteristics associated with the development of the
organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction
o Example: changes in vagina, uterus, penis, scrotum
Secondary sex characteristics: the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not directly
involve the sex organs
o Examples: breasts, pubic hair
3.4- Physical Changes in Adulthood
First time people have to deal with negative changes
An age of peak physical capabilities
Fully grown mentally and physically
Senescence: the natural physical decline brought about by increasing age
Middle adulthood-40 to 65
o Gradual changes, depends on self concept and lifestyle
Late adulthood-65 and over
o Primary aging: aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that, due to
genetic programming, occur as people get older
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