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Lecture 24

CAS AN 102 Lecture 24: Lecture 24

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Boston University
CAS AN 102
James Schmidt

Lecture 24: AMH’s I. Traits A. No Retromolar space B. Chin C. Small nose & face D. Canine fossa E. Globular braincase F. Rounded occipital II. Middle East A. AMH’s & Neanderthals coexisted for thousands of years B. Tabun: Neanderthals (127kya) C. Qafzeh & Skhul: AMH (120-90kya) 1. Qafzeh: 14 AMH individuals (elaborate burials) 2. Skhul: 10 AMH individuals (deliberate burials) D. Kebara & Amud: Neanderthals (60-55kya) III. Transition from H. erectus to H. sapiens A. Details debated B. Possible models: 1. Candelabra—fossils, idea from 1960’s 2. Multiregionalism—fossils, idea from 1980’s 3. Replacement—mtDNA, idea from 1980’s/1990’s 4. A Little Introgression—new idea based on ancient DNA IV. DNA Types A. Nuclear (nuDNA) 1. Autosomal chromosomes 2. Sex chromosomes B. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 1. Provides energy needed for cellular function 2. Circular rather than linear 3. 5-10 times faster mutation rate than nuDNA 4. No recombination or segregation 5. Mostly maternally inherited V. Mousterian Tools A. Flake tools detached from prepared stone cores B. Predetermined shape: flakes removed & reshaped into tools VI. Neanderthal Art? A. Music at 43kya? (Divje Babe flute, Slovenia) B. Figurative art (32kya?)—La Roche-Cotard Mask C. Personal ornament 1. Grotte du Renne, Arcy-sur-Cure, & Quinçay: Châtelperronian—Ivory ring & tooth pendants (fox, wolf) 2. Problems w/ dating/stratigraphy (unclear who made them) 3. Cueva Antón & Cueva de los Aviones, Spain (50kya) a) Dyed shells & animal bones b) Lumps of pigment c) Oyster shells used as paint cups? VII. La Ferrassie (70-50kya) A. 2 adults found head-to-head B. 4 children (one in pit covered w/ stone slab) C. No clear evidence of grave goods VIII. Teshik-tash (50kya) A. 9yr old child encircled by ibex horns B. Small fire burned nearby IX. 50-40kya: abrupt change in arch. record ass. w/ dispersal of AMH’s over the world A. New & expanded tool kit B. Transport of raw materials farther C. Elaborate shelters D. Symbolic expression X. Cro Magnon, France (27-23kya) A. Earliest AMH’s in W Europe B. Old man who died in middle
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