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CAS AN 102 (111)
Lecture

Lecture 4

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Department
Anthropology
Course
CAS AN 102
Professor
Cheryl Knott
Semester
Fall

Description
9/16 Gregor Mendel (1822­1884) • Discovered the particulate nature of genes • Created concepts of genotype and phenotype • Homologous chromosome • Locus­ location on a chromosome where homologous genes are located • Alleles­ alternate forms of the DNA sequence at a locus (can be used  synonymously with “gene”) • Heterozygus­ having two different DNA sequences (alleles) at a particular locus • Homozygus­ having two different alleles at a particular locus Genotype vs Phenotype • Genotype the genetic composition of an individual or the genetic composition at a  specific locus • Phenotype­ the observable characteristics of an individual. Individuals with the  same phenotype may have different genotypes Mendel’s Breakthrough • Mendel studied 7 different traits found in common garden peas • Each had 2 true breeding alternative forms • Recognized as a cross­breeding experiment • Instead of being intermediate in height all plants were tall proving tall is dominant  over short • Allowed the plants to self­fertilize in next generation • Being controlled by discrete units (particulates) Mendel’s law of segregation • Realized that particles must come in pairs, with offspring inheriting one unit from  each parents • He also saw that the pair must separate into different sex cells and unite again at  fertilization • Allele pairs separate during gamete formation and unite randomly at fertilization Blended Inheritance • Each parent contributed something that is halved at each generation • in this case evolution could not occur and new varients wouldn’t appear • Disproved Mendel’s law of blended inheritance Laws of Independent assortment • Mendel also did more complicated crosses (height and seed color here • Found that two
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