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CAS AN 102 (111)
Lecture

Lecture 5

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Department
Anthropology
Course
CAS AN 102
Professor
Cheryl Knott
Semester
Fall

Description
10/7/13 Ecology and foraging: • Hominoidea: Males: 47­78 kg • Females 42­73 kg • Bipedal • Very large brained • Very little body hair • Opportunistic diet • Social organization: normally gregarious sexual division of labor variety of male  female mating and marriage bonds Ecology • The study of the interrelationships of animals, plants, and their environments • Primates are active o Nocturnal: many prosimians, owl monkey, big eyes, big ears,  insectivorous o Diurnal: active during the day: monkeys apes and humans o Cathemeral­ active during the day and night (some lemurs) o Crepescular­ active at dawn and dusk (some lemurs) o Change with food availability o Big animals sometimes travel less when there is a low fruit level and eat  fall back food • Many niches of tropic rainforest o Emergent layer­ discontinuous branches and gaps. Necessitates more  leaping, suspensory behaviors and specialized behaviors such as bringing o Main canopy layer­ relatively continuous horizontal branches. More  arboreal quadrupedalism o Understory layer­ lots of vertical branches and lianas (vines) necessitates  more leaping and climbing • Primate communities o Territory disputes are usually between conspecifics (animals from same  species) o Many different species can coexist and they often do not directly compete  for resources or space o Much of a primates life revolves around finding and eating food trying to  maintain energy balance o Nutritional intake minus energy expenditure­ energy balance o Fruit availability is often limited in tropical rain forests o Extreme examples­ mass fruiting – unpredictable every 2­7 years related  to el Niño climatic events up to 80% of trees fruit at the same time unique  to aseasonal southeast Asia • Primatologist monitor the phenology of foods eaten by their study species • Plants defenses­ neesia (golden hairs get stuck in your skin, super high in fat,  birds can get it easiest (orangutangs hurt themselves to access the seed) • Structural­  o Bristles  o Spikes o Hairs  o Hard shells • Chemical defenses­ o Secondary plant compounds  Tannins  Alkaloid 
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