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AN102 1-30-14.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
CAS AN 102
Professor
Kevin Langergraber
Semester
Spring

Description
AN102 1­31­14 Evolution­ change in gene frequency over time  FORCES OF EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. natural selection 2. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variability • Point mutation o One letter in a codon in changed, codes for different protein • Deletion and insertion • Mutation rates are measured in events per base pairs per generation • Human: o Mutation rate is extremely low, 10­20 per gamete o Minimal effect on changing gene frequency • Selection often eliminates variation • Low mutation rates can maintain variation because a lot of variation is protected  from selection o Most phenotypic traits are polygenic o Height > 180 loci o Example:  Only medium height males reproduce   If height determined by single locus and on AA were medium  height, a would get deleted incredibly quickly  If it were two loci, there are many different combinations that  could give medium height AaBB AABB AABb AAbb aaBB • 3. Migration of gene flow­ the movement of genes between populations o Homogenizes and maintains similarities between populations, make them  more genetically identical
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