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Lecture 7

CAS BI 106 Lecture 7: Anatomy Lecture 7

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CAS BI 106
Dale Pasino

Lecture 7 2617 Ossification Formation of bone Can begin with spontaneous bone development within a sheet of connective tissue (formation of a bone within a membrane) intramembranous ossification Or, can begin with a model of hyaline cartilage, and then becomes bone over time endochondral ossification Endochondral ossification Starts with hyaline cartilage and slowly turns into bone Epiphyseal plate growth plate, when you have a fully formed bone tissue, it cannot get longer Bone elongation Bones can grow longer by first expanding their epiphyseal plates Once you convert the plate to bone, it can no longer grow Then ossifying the new cartilage Because the new growth occurs from the interior of the tissue, this is called interstitial growth Determining age by bones Age of epiphyseal plate fusion has been determined on Male skeletons. Recently it was discovered that female skeletons plates fuse on average 12 years early Bone widening and thickening Both bone and cartilage can get wider over time, they are surrounded by a perichondrium or periosteum, and the inner layer is capable of ossification Bones get wider in response to weight bearing stress Appositional growth is intramembranous ossification of the inner layer of the periosteum New circumferential lamellae result from this, its how we can tell if it got wider Bone matrix expansion and remodeling The ground substance of bone is highly mineralized, the minerals are attached to a framework of collagen fibers Maintenance of the collagen framework is essential (vitamin C) as is absorption and transport of calcium from the diet (vitamin D) Bone density is determined by the mechanical stress put upon it Joints Bones and cartilage work together to form several structures of the body Epiphyseal plates Joints Most joints of the body are lined with hyaline cartilage Majority of joints are filled with fluid synovial joints Importance of synovial fluid Replaces the need for vascularization of articular cartilage Movement is essential for synovial fluid permeation of the tissue Axial Skeleton Axial vs. Appendicular Appendicular arms,shoulders, legs, pelvis Axial skull, vertebrae, ribs Tendon: connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone (periosteum) Ligament: connective tissue that attaches one bone to another
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