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Lecture

Darwin's Evolutionary Theory

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Department
Biology
Course
CAS BI 108
Professor
Sean Mullen
Semester
Spring

Description
1/7/13 Biology • Biodiversity: The scientific study of living organisms and how they have evolved • Characteristics of Living Organisms: o Cells and Organization:  Organisms maintain internal order  Chemical Uniqueness  Hierarchy of Organization o Energy Use and Metabolism:  Energy required to maintain order  Energy utilized via Metabolism  Photosynthesis; Cellular Respiration; ATP o Response to Environmental Change:  Organisms react to stimuli   Adaptations/Behaviors promote survival o Regulation and Homeostasis:  Organisms regulate cells and bodies   Maintain relative stable internal conditions o Growth, Development and Reproduction:  Growth produces more or larger cells   Development produces organism with defined set of characteristics   Reproduction sustains species over generations   Genetic material causes offspring to have traits like their parents o Biological Evolution:  Populations of organisms change over generations   Evolution results in traits that promote survival and reproductive success • Darwin’s Explanatory Model of Evolution by Natural Selection o “Descent with modification”         • Survival of the Fittest o The most­fit individuals in a population capture a disproportionate share of the  resources o Interactions with the environment determine which individuals reproduce the most o Adaptation:  Changes that help a species  become more suited to its environment   Product of natural selection • Evidence of Evolution: o Comparative Anatomy:  Anagenesis­ The transformation of a single species, through a long period  of time, into a new species • New species created when can it can no longer reproduce  successfully (reproductively isolated) with the other species from  which it came  Speciation­ Involves a splitting phenomenon; members of an isolated  population transform into a new species   Darwin’s Evidence: • Paleontology (study of ancient life/bones) • Biogeography (distribution of organisms over the surface of the  planet)  Phylogeny­ refers to evolutionary history of groups of organisms  Homologous Structures: • Anatomically similar because they are inherited from a common  ancestor •  May be functionally similar or not • Provide evidence of relatedness • Explain anatomical similarities  Analogous Structures: • Parts serve the same function •  Parts not constructed similarly •  Do not share a common ancestor • Anatomically, entirely different structures (i.e. wing of owl and wing  of moth) •  Convergent evolution­ when interactions within the environment  shape the adaptations of organisms, leading to organisms appearing  similar (organisms that appear similar come from many different  origins)  Vestigial Structures: • Fully­developed anatomical structures •  Reduced or obsolete function o Comparative Development:  All vertebrate embryos have: • A postanal tail   • Paired pharyngeal (gill) pouches • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord • Notochord o Fossi
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