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Lecture 1

CAS BI 216 Lecture 1: Genetics - Lecture 1 - Chapter 1 - (1/19/17)

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CAS BI 216
John Celenza

Lecture 1 1192017 (Chapter 1) Genetics a series of principles that allow you to study biological information o Narrow sense: study of inherited traits o information of DNA > diversity in organisms o is it passed down from generation to generation? o phenotype sum of inherited traits and influence of the environment o DNA: The Fundamental Information Molecule of Life Evolution occurred over 4 billion years o DNA units are nucleotides (GCAT); GC and ATs pair made of deoxyribose sugar + phosphate + one of 4 nitrogenous bases antiparallel 5 to 3 Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Information is 1dimensional can be stored in a computer can interpret, store, replicate, transmit genetic information o DNA regions stored as genes > assembled into chromosomes Humans have 24 types of chromosomes 3 x 10^9 base pairs; 25K genes 6 million pages of text; 250 words a page 1.2 Proteins Proteins allow animals to reproduce, adapt to the environment, move o use sources of energy and grow o 20 different types o polymers of amino acids from polypeptide chains into 3D structures determined by AA sequences AA have basic amino group (NH) and acidic carboxyl group (COOH) on each end; side chain determines AA chemical properties o chymotrypsinelastase = enzymes that help break down other proteins 1.3 Molecular Similarities in Life Forms RNA may have been first informationprocessing molecule to appear o formed from G,C, A, U (uracil) o RNA can fold to 3D > catalyze chemical processes store, replicate, mutate, and express information some genes encode RNA molecules o RNA is unstable > DNA took over as information because it is more stable RNA became intermediary to protein translation common origin of life is present in their DNA sequences o all organism use same genetic code
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