Lecture 3 02/16/2014
Quaternary structure of proteins: multiple subunits (tertiary structures) put together. Not all proteins have
No protein storage; you can use amino acids for energy storage or use for energy but it is not a good thing;
take an amino acid and turn it into glucose: remove the amino group, rearrange into a glucose molecule in
the liver. This mechanism is controlled by insulin, nervous system and other hormones.
When energy is plenty: protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis (controlled by hormones, nervous system
4 hormones that break down (opposite of insulin)
Cortisoladrenal; steroid, antiinflammatoryputs a break on the immune system.
GlucagonPancreas (when glucose is gone)
Protein and ligand (binding sites): attractive with electrostatic forces to bind; also specificity; good/bad? Can
be both. Ligands that are not specific can bind to other proteins causing side effects because of other
Prednisonestop the immune system for a short period of time; binds steroid receptors better then cortisol
and lasts longer and it depends on the kidneys.
Affinity of the receptor:
high affinitydon’t need much of the ligand.
Low affinity; need a higher dose; higher the dose the more