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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 BI315.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
CAS BI 315
Professor
Eric Widmaier

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Lecture 8 02/17/2014 Autonomic nervous system­acetylcholine (Ach): acetic acid + choline(a nutrient in almost everything you  eat) Neurons that makes choline=cholinergic Neurons that act on receptors=cholinergic receptors; 2 types: M­type; muscarinic receptors (autonomic) N­type; nicotinic receptors (skeletal) Cardiac muscle­muscarinic receptors; metabotropic▯g­proteins signaling pathways; intracellular response. Pacemaker (modified muscle cells)­cannot contract like a muscle, but they can spontaneously depolarize  themselves because they have sodium channels that can open when it’s repolarized▯depolarization ▯funny channel, and the funny sodium current: through gap junctions allow other cells to contract and  depolarize­the neuron ends in the pacemaker. Muscarinic­slows down the heart rate and decreases the blood pressure; in humans it cannot decrease the  strength of the heart but it can in some invertebrates.  Baroreceptor reflex: controls blood pressure. Increase blood pressure­turn off sympathetic response▯turn  on cholinergic and then decreases the heart rate. Bradycardia (slow heart rate) and tachycardia (fast heart rate) Smooth muscle▯GI tract: increase motility; stimulatory Airways­bronchoconstriction (reflex mechanism) Alveoli are delicate and allow for gas exchange; when something gets into the airway and potentially small  enough to get down to the alveoli it could damage and cause infection ▯so constrict the bronchiole so it  doesn’t get to the alveoli and WBC can attack the foreign object preventing infection. This is done by  muscarinic receptors by acetylcholine. Use an antagonist of acetylcholine for treatment of asthma (blocks ACh) Atropine (muscarinic receptor blocker) “patent” airways­open airways Eyes have cholinergic receptors­muscarinic receptors causes constriction.  Pancreas­stimulate insulin for digestion Exocrine▯secretes material into a cavity, increases enzyme secretion into the intestine. Endocrine­hormone gland and releases into the bloodstream Stomach:
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