CAS BI 108 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Gibbs Free Energy, Catabolism, Cellulose

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Lecture 6:
Polysaccharides
Hundreds to thousands of linked (bonded) monosaccharides
Examples of Polysaccharides:
o Cellulose: Found in plants, not branched, and structural
o Starch: Found in plants, branched, and involved in sugar storage
o Glycogen: Found in animals, highly branched, and involved in sugar storage
Chapter 8 and 9: Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy
Metabolism- sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
Catabolic reactions: Input molecules are converted to products generating energy
o Glucoseàproducts + energy (ATP)
o Energy generated normally stored as ATP
Anabolic reactions: Complex molecules are formed from simple molecules requiring
energy input
o Substrates + energy (ATP)àAmino acids
Output of energy from catabolic reactions is captured to provide input energy for
anabolic reactions. ATP captures energy
Metabolism is complex: >1000 reactions in cells
Metabolism similar in all cells
“G” is Gibbs free energy
o WewilluseΔG
o Δ G= G products- G substrates
o G is appropriate because it is defined for constant temperature and pressure
(typical in biological systems)
o Δ Go «delta G zero» : when a system is at equilibrium o There exists other energies
(E, H, A)
When ΔG or ΔGo are negative, o Free energy is released
o Reaction is spontaneous o Reaction is favorable
o Downhill
o Exergonic
When ΔG or ΔGo are positive, o Free energy is consumed
o Reaction is not spontaneous o Reaction is unfavorable
o Uphill
o Endergonic
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