CAS GE 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Nuclear Fission, Nuclear Weapon, Nuclear Fusion

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2/7/17 Lecture 6
75% of US petroleum consumption is used in transportation
A molecule is an assembly of two or more atoms
A compound is a molecule that contains at least two different elements
Isotope: same element, different number of neutrons
Physical changes in matter
Solid, liquid, gas
Nuclear fission: when a large isotope splits into lighter isotopes
Basis of nuclear energy and nuclear bomb
Nuclear fusion: nuclei of 2 light elements are combined together to form a heavier
nucleus
Reaction sustaining sun and stars
Importance of Energy
Energy is the ability to do work
Used to organize materials into goods, provides heat, light, and other useful
services
In natural environment, energy evaporates water, makes plants grow…
Work
The force applied to an object x the distance the object is moved
Society uses fossil fuels to do a lot of our work
First Law of Thermodynamics
There is no inc or dec in quantity of energy in any energy conversion
The quantity of energy remains constant
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In all energy exchanges, energy loses its ability to do work, i.e. it is degraded in quality
The quality of the energy decreases with each energy conversion
You get more and more energy in the form of heat
Entropy increases
Mechanical Energy
Energy of organized motion
Potential energy
Energy of position
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