CAS GE 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Heat Capacity, Solar Constant, Upwelling

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The outer layers of sun are roughly 6400 degrees celsius. Amount that reaches the earths atmosphere is 1. 97 calories/cm2/second ( the solar constant . Earths center is roughly 4,300 degrees celsius +/- 50% Amount that reaches the earths surface is 1. 5x10^6 calories/cm2/second. >global use of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity generated from nuclear and hydropower plants but <1% of energy from the sun. 69% of incoming solar energy is absorbed, 31% reflected (albedo) The energy that is absorbed helps determine the temperature and drives the earth"s physical systems: hydrological cycle, atmospheric circulation, waves, primary productivity. Work done by this energy: heats surface, melt and form crust, move continents. Plate tectonics: crust moves about 2 cm/year in north atlantic, amount of new crust formed at ridges balanced by amount crust destroyed. Differential solar radiation: radiation is higher at lower altitudes.

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