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Lecture 10

CAS PO 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Intermediate Scrutiny, Seneca Falls Convention, Civil Rights Act Of 1964


Department
Political Science
Course Code
CAS PO 111
Professor
David Scott Palmer
Lecture
10

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Civil%Rights:%the%legal%or%moral%claims%that%citizens%are%entitled%to%make%on%
the%government
Of%the%14th%Amendment
§
Basis%for%the%civil%rights%of%African%Americans,%women%and%other%
groups
§
Equal%Protection%Clause:
Civil%Right%&%Civil%Liberties%are%not the%same
Ø
The%collective% action%is%difficult%and%the%difficulty%mounts%as%the%
number%of%individuals%involved%increases
§
Collective%Action%Principle:
Civil%Rights%&%Collective%Action
Ø
"No%state%shall%make%or%enforce%any%law%which%shall%deny%to%any%person%
within%its%jurisdiction%the%equal%protection%of%the%laws"
The%Equal%Protection%Clause
Ø
History%Principle
The%answers%change%over%time
§
Who,%What%&%How%Much?
Not%included%in%the%Constitution
§
Property
Gender
Race
Initially,%states%restricted%voting%based%on
§
15th%Amendment%(1870):%granted%African%American%the%right%
to%vote
19th%Am%(1920):%women
26th%Am%(1971):%lower%the%voting%age%to%18
Voting%rights%expands%over%time:
§
The%Right%to%Vote
1896:%The%Court%upheld%a%Louisiana%statute%(written%law)%that%
required%segregation%of%the%races%on%trolleys%and%other%public%
carriers%and%in%all%public%facilities%including%schools
§
Homer%Plessy,%1/8%Black,%had%violated%a%law%that%imposed%a%fine%for%
any%black%passenger%sitting%in%a%car%reserved%for%whites
§
The%Court%said%the%14th%Amendment%"could%not%have%intended%to%
abolish%distinctions%based%on%color,%or%to%enforce…%a%commingling%of%
the%two%races%upon%terms%unsatisfactory%to%either"
§
The%doctrine%that%held%that%accommodations%could%be%
segregated%by%race%but%still%be%equal
This%was%the%origin%of%"Separate%But%Equal"
§
Plessy%v.%Ferguson%(1896):
1938:%The%Court%required%admission%to%a%Missouri%law%school%rather%
than%paying%out-of-state%tuition%for%African%Americans
§
1950:%The%Court%rejected%Texas's%claim%that%its%new%"law%school%for%
Negroes"%was%equivalent%to%the%all-white%University%of%Texas
§
Fighting%Racial%Discrimination
Linda%Brown,%a%3rd%grade%African%American%in%Topeka,%Kansas,%
was%denied%admission%to%the%closest%school%to%her%home,%
which%was%for%white%only
"In%the%field%of%public%education,%the%doctrine%of%
"separate%but%equal"%has%no%place.%Separate%educational%
facilities%are%inherently%unequal"
®
Unanimous%decision,%written%by%Chief%Justice%Earl%
Warren
®
The%Court%ruled%that
Brown%v.%Board%of%Education%(1954)
§
Delay%in%enforcing%Brown by%local%officials
Brown only%attacked%de%jure (by%right)%segregation%but%could%
do%little%about%de%facto (by%fact)segregation
Brown did%not%directly%address%discrimination%in%employment,%
voting,%etc.
3%problems%with%Brown's%effects:
§
Brown did%not%change%things%much
§
Landmark%Case:
After%Brown
§
1963:%Culminating%in%the%March%on%Washington
§
The%Rise%of%the%Civil%Rights%Movement
After%Little%Rock,%states%used%"pupil%placement"%laws%to%delay%
desegregation
Eisenhower%sends%troops%to%Little% Rock,%Arkansas%to%enforce%school%
integration
§
Busing:%forced%busing%to%overcome%the%effect%of%residential%
segregation
The%Civil%Rights%Act%and%later%Court%decision,%finally%did%begin%to%
desegregate%schools
§
School%Desegregation
Outlaws%(bans)%job%discrimination%by%all%private%and%
public%employers
®
Grigg%v.%Duke%Power%(1971):%The%Court%put%the%burden%
on%employers%to%show%that%an%employment%policy%
whose%effect%is%discriminatory,%even%if%discrimination%
was%not%the%intent%of%the%policy,%is%a%"business%
necessity"
®
The%Court%ruled%that%a%charge%of%discrimination%
must%be%brought%within%180%days%of%the%time%the%
discrimination%was%alleged%to%have%occurred
Congress%overturned the%Court's%decision%by%
passing%the%Fair%Pay%Act%in%2009
Ledbetter%v.%Goodyear%(2007):%
®
Title%VII%of%the%Civil%Rights%Act%(1964)
Employment
§
Seneca%Falls%Convention%(1848):%the%1st%women's%rights%
convention
19th%Amendment%(1920)%grants%women%the%right%to%vote%in%
federal%elections
1960s:%Civil%Rights%for%women%accelerates
1982:%ERA%falls%just%short%of%ratification
Intermediate%Scrutiny:%burden%of%proof%is%partially%on%
plaintiff%and%partially%on%defendant%to%show%that%law%is%
constitutional
®
The%Burger%Court:%applies%intermediate%scrutiny%to%gender%
discrimination%cases
Guaranteed%equal%rights%for%women
®
Proposed%throughout%1900s
®
1972:%Passed%Congress
®
Congress%set%deadline%of%1979%&%then%1982%for%
ratification%by%the%states
®
The%Equal%Rights%Amendment
Gender
§
Part%of%Education%Amendment%of%1972
No%discrimination%against%gender%under%any%education%
program%or%activity%receiving%federal%financial%assistance%
Title%IX%(1972)
§
Discrimination
Civil%Rights
Ø
Civil%Rights%I
Sunday,%18%December% 2016
3:38%AM
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