CAS PS 332 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Allostatic Load, Stress (Biology), Peripheral Nervous System

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Published on 22 May 2019
Lecture 5: 2/5/19
Health Disparities Within the US
o Health disparities = differences in health outcomes or experiences of
disease that are observed between populations
What is stress?
o Environmental event (“stressor”)
Disrupts homeostasis
Situation (acute or chronic) or event
o Psychological state
Anticipation of disrupted homeostasis
Cognitive / emotional
o Physiological response
Attempt to regain homeostasis
Biopsychosocial model breakdown
APA stress poll
Why is stress important?
o Allows us to stay safe
o Mobilizes energy- Fight or Flight
o Allostatic load: constancy in the state of change; what’s adaptive in any
given time is different, allows for change. Load = cumulative long term
effects on body from stress. Higher load = higher likelihood of developing
chronic stress related illnesses.
Nervous system
o Basic functions: integrate and control body systems, and interface
between body and environment
o Basic neuron structure
o Central vs Peripheral nervous system
Peripheral - somatic and autonomic
Autonomic- sympathetic and parasympathetic
o Neuroendocrine
Subset of endocrine system; glands that interact with nervous
Hormones = chemicals that travel through the bloodstream
Act on specialized receptors, directly change target organ,
indirectly secrete other hormones
HPA Axis: Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal Cortex (long term)
Negative feedback loop, impaired with chronic stress
SAM Axis: releases norepinepherine and epinepherine, stimulates
nerves in the adrenal medulla; impacts fight or flight (short term)
There are two pathways for short term and long term adaptation
and survival
Theories of stress
o Selye: General adaptation syndrome
Injected hormones into rats
In both rats, he saw ulcers, enlarged adrenal glands, shrunken
immune tissue
This suggests that there are varied type of stressors, including the
psychological impact of getting a repeated injection
With different types of stressors, same physiological response
Stress can make you sick
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