CAS PS 332 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Innate Immune System, Primary Cell, Antigen

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Published on 22 May 2019
Professor
Lecture 11: 3/28/19
Immune system review
o Two main functions
Protect body from invasion by antigens
Bacteria, viruses, fungi
Remove damaged or mutant cells
E.g., cancer cells
o Three Levels:
Physical barriers
E.g. skin; mucosal tracts of airways & gut
Innate immune system (“Nonspecific”)
Fast, non-specific response
Present since birth
Macrophage - “defender” cell that is programmed to
recognize common antigens
o Attracted to chemicals released by antigen
o Travels to site of antigen
o Reaches out and “grabs” antigen >> phagocytosis
Literally means “big eater”
Cytokines - hormone-like messengers that facilitate
communication among immune cells
o Coordinate inflammatory response
Signals to immune cells that there is an
invader
Other immune cells exit the blood vessels
near antigen to restore damaged tissue
Local & systemic effects
o E.g., Interleukin 6 (IL-6)
secreted by T-cells & macrophages, one of
key findings from Pittsburgh cold studies
Acquired immune system (“Specific”)
Developed to fight viruses
Slower, specific response
Primary cell types: B- and T-Cells
o B cells - White blood cells that attack antigens by
producing specific antibodies
o T cells - White blood cells that attack antigens
directly, without producing antibodies
B-Cells make antibodies (a.k.a. immunoglobulins)
proteins that protect the body against specific antigens
o B-Cell senses cognate antigen à proliferation
Plasma vs. memory cells
Clones produce antibodies specific to
cognate antigen
Antibodies “tag” antigens for destruction
o Primary vs. secondary responses
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T-Cells Lymphocytes that respond to specific cognate
antigens & proliferate
o Cytotoxic T-cells - kill virus-infected cells
Bind to infected cells & inject lethal toxin >>
infected cell dies
“Killer cells” equipped with receptors that
match one specific antigen
o T-Helper cells “direct” the action of the immune
response by secreting cytokines >> stimulate
additional immune cells
B cells, cytotoxic T cells, macrophages
Sentries that travel through the bloodstream
hunting antigens and secreting chemical
messengers (lymphokines), which stimulate
other immune cells
o T-Suppressor cells Produce chemicals that
downregulate immune responding & alert T and B
cells when an antigen is vanquished
Explain the main findings from the “Pittsburgh cold studies”
o Experimental paradigms used
o Role of stress & social support
o Proposed physiological pathway
o Pittsburgh Cold Studies Questions:
1.What is the goal of this line of research? Over 20 years, idea
was to better understand causality and psychosocial factors
related to getting a cold.
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