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CAS CH 131 (61)
Lecture

Bonds, Ionization Energy, and Electronegativity

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CAS CH 131
Professor
Andrei Lapets
Semester
Fall

Description
9/11/12 Properties of Elements The periodic table groups generally by composition and function. NaCl is an ionic bond which is when one or more electron is transferred between the  + ­ elements. Na  gives up an electron while Cl  gains one; electrostatic attraction. H  is a covalent bond, a sharing of electrons which may not be equal. 2 Balance between charge of protons attracting electrons and electrons pushing away other  electrons, Coulomb’s Law is F(r) = (g g )/(1 2E r ) 0 2 g = charges r = distance E = permittivity of vacuum                                                  ++ positive repulsive +­ negative sttractive Potential Energy is V(r) = (g g 1 24piE r) 0 2 Total E = KE + PE = 0.5mv  ­ (g g )/(1 2E r) 0 *strength that holds electron : to remove electron from H, +13.6 electron volts is needed Ionization Energy: minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom  in the gas phase and form a positively charged ion. X  (g) (g) + e­ *****ALWAYS POSITIVE AMOUNT OF ENERGY TO REMOVE  ELECTRON He needs 24.6 eV, Ne needs 21.6 eV, and Ar needs 15.8 eV. Larger atoms have more electrons and the electrons are further from  the core while outer electrons are shielding the core. This means that  it is easier to remove the electrons (less energy required). + 2+ ­ Second Ionization Energy: X   ▯X (g) (g)  + e Always larger than the first ionization energy. More protons and electrons attracting each other needing more energy. + ­ Be  +Be  + +2    9.32 eV Be   ▯Be         18.21 eV Be   ▯Be +3     153.89 eV (Taking from core shell needs a lot of energy) F  ▯F +1 + 1e     17.42 eV +1 +2 F   ▯F            34.97 F   ▯F +3           62.71 +3 +4 F +4▯F +5           87.14 F   ▯F          114.24 F   ▯F +6         157.16 +6 +7 F   ▯F         185.78 F   ▯F +8        953.85 +8 +9 F   ▯F  
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