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Chemistry (611)
CAS CH 131 (61)

Intermolecular forces, properties of matter, and phase changes

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CAS CH 131
Andrei Lapets

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09/27/2012  Intermolecular forces Dipole­Dipole forces Between polar molecules Permanent dipole moments Electrostatic interaction Larger dipole = larger force Ex. Compound – dipole moment – boiling point 2       N  – 0 ­ 77 2       O  – 0 ­ 90       NO – 0.153 – 121 Ion­Dipole forces Between ion (cation or anion) and a polar molecule Depends on charge and size of ion and the magnitude of dipole and size of the molecule Electrostatic interaction Ex. NaCl ▯ Na  + Cl ­ water              Na  really takes up a shell of water London Dispersion forces Attractive force due to a temporary dipole All molecules experience this Weak interactions Ex. Ion placed next to a nonpolar molecule Charge in ion will cause a temporary change in the charge distribution of the nonpolar molecule electron distribution of the nonpolar molecule is distorted by the force of the ion polarized ­­­ induced dipole Ex. Dipole molecule next to nonpolar molecule depends on 1) charge of ion or strength of dipole 2) polarizability of the nonpolar molecule (ease with which  electrons can be distorted) more electrons = higher polarizability exist across the entire surface of a molecule although very weak, large structures can have a strong force due to many London dispersion forces larger molecules/atoms have a higher boiling point due to more London dispersion forces Hydrogen bondi
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