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Chemistry (610)
CAS CH 131 (61)
Lecture

Lewis Dot Structures and Formal Charges

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CAS CH 131
Professor
Andrei Lapets
Semester
Fall

Description
09/13/2012 Ionization Energy: energy needed to remove an electron Electron Affinity: energy needed to detach the electron from the anion First focuses on neutral matter while second focuses on anion Energy levels as you go further from center (principal quantum #) Shape is the angular quantum number: s, p, d, f Orientation is the magnetic quantum number: m l Electron spin is m s Electronegativity Ability of atom to attract towards itself an electron Relative concept As you go from bottom to top and left to right, the electronegativity increases H 2H­H covalent bond, equal sharing HF H­F polar covalent bond, unequal sharing Electronegativity ≅ ½ (Ionization Energy + Electron Affinity) You can calculate the fraction of an electron charge that is shifted with bonding (ionic character) (μ(20.82))/distance bonds between similar atoms always give covalent bonds dissimilar bonds tend to be ionic ***If electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms is greater than 2, it is likely an ionic bond*** HCl = 2.2 – 3.2 = 0.9 covalent KF = 4.0 – 0.82 = 3.2 ionic Lewis Dot Structures Used to predict molecular formula Atoms will combine to achieve a more stable electron configuration 8 electrons (octet rule) is  where this comes from                                              1s 2s 2p 3s 3p H 2 single bonds ▯ 2 electrons double bonds ▯ 4 electrons triple bonds ▯ 6 electrons N 210 electrons total ▯ N ΞN ­ NO 3 N 5 elec
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