Class Notes (839,315)
United States (325,922)
Chemistry (611)
CAS CH 131 (61)
Lecture

Solutions

4 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CAS CH 131
Professor
Andrei Lapets

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Solutions (Chemical Reactions) Intermolecular forces (Hydrogen bonding > dipole­dipole > London dispersion forces) Concentration – measure of amount of solute in a given quantity M = mol/L Molality = mol/kg Ex. calculate mass of NaClO  need4d to produce 100 mL of a 0.05 M  solution 0.05 mol/L (0.1 L) (0.61 g/1 mol) = 0.0305 g Ex. What volume of 0.05 M NaClO  will b4 needed to prepare 250 mL of a 0.001 M NaClO   4 solution? (0.05)V = (0.001)(0.25) V = 0.005 L Chemical Reactions Rearrangement of electrons or atoms Products have different properties (A) Dissolution Reaction  something dissolves Na 2O  ▯42 Na  + SO 42­ (B) Ionic Precipitation Reaction something precipitates +2 2­ Ba  + SO  ▯4BaSO 4 Solid is formed Could be amorphous or crystalline Interactions between cations and anions Multiply charged ions usually give insoluble salts Single charged ions usually give soluble salts CaCl  2 NaHCO  ▯ ?3 ­ Ca will most likely become +2 and Cl will become 2Cl Ca  + 2Cl + Na  + 2HCO  ▯ CaCO  +3CO  + H O + 3Cl + Na 2 2 ­ + 2+ 2­ Ba  + SO  ▯ B4SO 4 +2 2­ How much BASO  precipit4te will be formed if we mix 1 mL of 0.1 M Ba  and 9 mL of 0.5 M SO ? 4 Moles Ba  = (0.1 M)(1 mL)(1 L/100 mL) =1x10 ­4 Moles SO =(0.4M)(9mL)(1 L/100 mL) =4.5x10 ­3 ­4 BaSO  = 4x10 (1 mol/1 mol)(233.36g/1mol) = 0.023g In multiply charged species, lattice energy is higher than the hydration energy FORMS SALTS BOTH ELEMENTS MUST BE MULTIPLY CHARGED (C) Acid­Base Reaction HCl + H O ▯ H O  + Cl + ­ 2 3 Acid is a substance that when dissolved in water increases the hydronium ion concentration + Hydronium = H O 3 + ­7 [H 3 ] > 1 x 10  ▯ acidic Base is a substance that in
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