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CAS CH 131 (61)
Lecture

Chemical Equilibrium

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CAS CH 131
Professor
Andrei Lapets
Semester
Fall

Description
Chemical Equilibrium • Chemical Equilibrium 1. R  P 2. approaches a state of equilibrium, but some product and unconsumed reactants 3. once equilibrium is achieved, there is no further conversion of products 1. change in temperature or pressure, change will occur 4. (1) reactants and products remain constant over time 5. (2) the observable state is unchanged, but the reaction still continues 6. (3) at the molecular level, there is still a lot of activity (dynamic) 7. (4) equilibrium constant K is aeqatio of products over reactants 8. at equilibrium, the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal 9. H O 2(l)O 2 (g) 1. dynamic because water vapor collides with liquid and go into it as well as liquid with enough energy to leave 2. ratio of vapor and water is constant (vapor pressure) o 10. N O2 4(g) 2NO 2(g)at 25 C 11. 12. 13. start with a lot of N 2 a4d it levels down 0.64 14. start with no NO an2 it levels up 0.055 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. start with a lot of N 2 ,4levels down 0.49 21. start with no NO , 2evels up 0.048 22. 23. 24. 25. start with no N 2 ,4levels up 0.089 26. 27. start and end on same NO 0.022 28. 29. 30. [NO ] /2 [N O ] = constant = 4.6x10 = k-3 2 2 4 31. aA + bB  cC+ dD 1. k = ([C] [D] )/([A] [B] ) b 2. if k >>> 1, products favored 3. if k <<< 1, reactants favored 4. k C [P]/[R] 1. c stands for concentration or molarity 5. [] in gas phase can be expressed in terms of partial pressures 1. k =PP NO2 /PN2O4 6. generally, k =/=ck p 7. k =pk (RTc Δn 1. Δn is the change in moles from products to reactants 8. NaOCl (bleach) becomes Na and 3ClO + -(aq) 2Cl (aq)+ ClO 3 (aq) 28 1. k = 1.1x10 2. slow at 25 C, fast at >70 C o 32. heterogeneous systems 1. complex mixture of solids/liquids and dissolved molecules/gases + 2+ 2. Zn + (s)O 3 (aq) Zn (aq)+ H 2(g) 2H O2 (l) 1. (1) pure liquid H O: 2 O  2 O(l) 2 (g) 1. position of equilibrium is not affected by amount of water 2. at 25 C, pressure is constant 2. (2) pure solid I 2(s) 2(aq) 1. concentration of I in H2O is i2dependent of amount of solid as long as some solid is left (saturated) 2. solid term not i
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