ES 144: NOTES
September 7, 2012
INTRO TO OCEANOGRAPHY:
Phytoplankton (Grass of the sea) Small, microscopic plants.
EX: Green Algae
Primary Productivity and secondary productivity leads to it growing on to things and
eventually leading up to the COLOSSAL SQUID.
Ex: Sun & inorganic matter > phytoplankton > bacteria > zooplankton > pelagic predators > Carbon Dioxide
Colossal Squid Mesonychoteuthis Hamilton
Oceanography Trying to understand marine science and marine biology.
Bird’s foot delta (end of Mississippi river) is where 40 % of USA’s runoff goes into the
Gulf of Mexico. (Creating/adding to dead zone)
LECTURE 1: HISTORY OF OCEAN EXPLORATION
Reasons to explore the Ocean:
Resources (metals, gold, food)
The first explorers of the sea were Polynesians. (30,000 years ago). Started migrating
Left South America > Papa New Guinea > Hawaiian Islands > ended in Ester Islands
(Discovered and found some pottery)
Reflection of Islands in clouds
Followed birds (Frigates and Turns)
Swells (Ripples that go in one direction)
Stick charts (“goggle maps”) String for currents and shells for islands
Smell of water
History: People and their expeditions:
KonTiki built a raft and tried to mimic what Polynesians did (proving it could be
done) – occurred in 1940
900700 BC: Greeks traveled all around the Mediterranean but never left it.
Discovered water dominated by a certain phytoplankton that made the water red. [Type the document title]
September 7, 2012
Eratosthmes: Calculated circumference of the Earth
He did this by reading of a shadow in one place and a no shadow in the
other. (Led to hypothesis of the world being round) He was about 32 km
the real circumference.
Vikings: First to N. America (not Columbus)
Path: From Finland region > Iceland > Greenland > Canada > Newfoundland.
Zheng He: More advanced boats and more detailed maps. They had many
crewmembers and many boats. (13711433)
Chinese had around 300 boats whereas Columbus had 3.
Scurvy: Fatal disease to vitamin C deficiency.
Chinese grew veggies on boats.
Charles Wilkes: (US EX EX) Founded/ Explored coast of Antarctica. Explored
Hawaii, San Francisco, and Oregon.
Matthew Maury: (motivated by Wilkes) Father of physical oceanography. He
noticed and observed wind, currents, etc. (during trade) Also wrote first
Oceanography text (1855)
Challenger Expedition: (Dec ’72 May ’76) Travelled 68,890 nautical miles.
Sampled all around the N and S Atlantic and Pacific. Founded Marinas Trench.
Wyville Thompson recorded 362 samples/observations
2.) Sample Bottom
3.) Sample Bottom H20
4.) Bottom temp. recorded
At most stations:
1.) Fair sample of bottom fauna (dredge/traul)
2.) Surface fauna and int. depth