CLASS 4 NOTES.docx

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Department
Mass Communication, Advertising & Public Relations
Course
COM CM 380
Professor
Mina Tsay- Vogel
Semester
Spring

Description
CLASS 4 NOTES Article Reading Experiment – 224 college students exposed to one of three versions of film     Initial spark: mere portrayal of alcohol facilitates favorable attitudes Argument: maybe it’s the context and the manner that they are presented   Social learning theory ∙      Even vicarious experiences of reinforcement or punishment may promote certain  behaviors ∙      Absence of negative consequences might illicit positive feelings   Test – impact of absence verses presence of negative consequences in dramatic portrayals  of alcohol drinking ∙      Expected results o   Absence – induce favorable attitudes towards alcohol o   Negative present – unfavorable attitudes     Limitations: ∙      Did not single out different negative portrayals – unsure how each individual, or  which reactions induce negative attitudes ∙      Only one experiment ∙      This was a drama experiment – results may not be the same for persuasive­ad type of  medium ∙      Further research must be done!   Class Notes  REVIEW Levels of media effects ∙      Direct effects ∙      Moderate effects o   Happy medium (conditional effects) o   Focus today ∙      Limited effects   SOCIAL LEARNING Cognitive theory ∙      What does it assume? o   Social beings – depend on what we see others do o   How we learn what is right in society §  Enact what we think appropriate for given situations Distinct human traits ∙      Symbolizing capacity o   Communication via shared understanding of symbols §  Allows storing processing and transforming experiences into models guiding action  and decisions §  Someone talks to you about certain news topic à you look up news topic ∙      Self regulatory capacity o   Behavior is self­directed with motivation ∙      Self­reflective capacity o   Ability to perform self­check for correct thinking ∙      Vicarious capacity o   Ability to learn without direct experience §  Emphasizes potential contributions of mass media messages §  Example: identify and relate with other person ú  Empathy when something happens to someone else §  Experiment proving vicarious capacity ú  Bobo doll experiment (punching bag doll) ∙      If adults are rewarded by punching the doll, children emulate this action (vicarious  learning)   *why are humans so dependent on observational learning?   Social learning process – observational learning ∙      Attention (stimulus – exposed and grabs attention) ∙      Retention (level of deeper connection – encode and remember) ∙      Reproduction (behaviors – physical recreation, imagination) o   Types of reproduction §  Enactive v. symbolic ∙      Motivation (disinhibition) o   Types of motivation §  Past reinfor
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