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Class Notes for Neuroscience at Boston University

CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Synaptic Plasticity, Neprilysin, Genetically Modified Organism
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ALZHEIMERS DISEASE Two molecular pathways associated with lesions Amyloid Beta Plaques (extracellular): pathway through APP cleaved by beta and gamma secretases that release Abeta NFTs (int...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Scrapie, Jugular Vein, Glycosylphosphatidylinositol
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PRIONS DISEASE (CJD/MAD COW) Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) infectious agent is Prion (PrPc converted to PrPsc) Physiologic PrPc (cellular form) to pathologic PrPsc (scrappy form) GAIN OF ...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Neurology, Apoptosis, Spasticity
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MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Neurodegenerative Autoimmune Disease that progressively robs sufferers of cognitive function, ability to sense the world around them and capacity to walk. Dont know how it starts neurodegeneration cau...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Membrane Potential, Axoplasmic Transport, Neurodegeneration
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How are SOD1 aggregates toxic Mitochondrial dysfunctions and apoptosis studies in FALS SOD1 aggregates trigger apoptosis by inhibiting BCL-2, a mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein: relationship between SOD1 and anti-ap...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Apoptosis, Antigen, T Helper Cell
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Pathology of MS over time Lesions scarring tissue caused by released myelin from neurons cause edema which will help MRI identification of these plaques Number of lesions higher in relapsing-remitting phase ...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Chloroquine, Model Organism, Hydrolase
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Trafficking of APP Biosynthetic pathway: proteins, whether they are soluble or transmembrane, as long as they have been synthesized in ER, will be transported to plasma membrane Endocytic pathway: specific proteins of t...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Thermodynamics, Folding Funnel, Phosphorylation
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PROTEINS MISFOLDING, AGGREGATION AND NEURODEGENERATION Misfolding: Proteins are synthesized in the ribosomes during transcription, folding occurs to find state of lowest energy using charges on composing amino acids. Struc...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Atg5, Dnm1L, Mitochondrion
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Proteostasis in PD is disrupted and so the dysfunctional mitochondria are not degraded which leads to release of ROS. asynuclein aggregates which could be directly toxic or form protofibrils which then leads to neuronal de...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Homeostasis
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APOPTOSIS: programmed cell death Steps: Condensation of nuclear chromatin (chromatin packs DNA) DNA fragmentation o No more cell division o No more transcription and translation of ...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Mitophagy, Heavy Metals, Subthalamic Nucleus
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Mechanisms of Protein Degradation: Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway: mechanism that uses addition of ubiquitin chain as a tag/signal for proteins that need to be degraded. Brought to proteasome for catalytic activity which d...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Superoxide, Mitochondrial Disease, Nitration
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AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS (ALS; Lou Gehrigs Disease) Motor neuron disease, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death/degeneration of upper motor neurons (in brain from motor cortex to brain ste...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Basal Ganglia, Prefrontal Cortex, Excitotoxicity
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Parkinsons, ms, als, huntingtons, prions, alzheimers, FTD, down Difference between FDGPET or PiB PET. All diseases except for MS have familial cases. Helps understand disease, proteins found to be mutated in familial disea...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Cytochrome C, Lysosome, Mitochondrial Fission
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ROLE OF HTT IN REST REGULATION HTT sequesters REST in cytosol, less seen in nucleus MUTANT HTT redistributes REST to the nucleus STUDY: how mutant and WT HTT will interfere with REST, levels of REST at cytosolic and nucl...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Hydroxyl Radical, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Inner Membrane
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COMMON FEATURES IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES: Aggregates: beta sheet proteins now bond with each other forming aggregates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Apoptosis Deposition of fibrillar proteinacious material in Alzheimers di...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino
CAS NE 525 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Cytoskeleton, Autophagy, Repressor
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Co-Immuniprecipitation technique (2 examples HT and ALS) STUDY: technique to pull out proteins that are interacting with each other. See interaction between A and B. Anti-bodies will detect A, agarose beads bind to antibo...

Neuroscience
CAS NE 525
Lucia Pastorino

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