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CAS PH 150 (45)


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Boston University
CAS PH 150
Matt Cartmill

Dodd SOC120 9/11/13 NOTES  Sociology: scientific study of social life, social change, and social causes and consequences of human behavior.  Sociologists study organization, interaction, conflict and change, and how societies affect each other  Groups: o Dyads (romantic couples) o Small groups (family) o Large groups (Latinos in US) o Nations (US) o The global society  Groups categorized by: o Recurrent social patterns o Organized behavior/rules that govern these o Shared experiences among members o Common understandings  Sociologists do not accept common sense—they rely on research  “Sociological Imagination”—coined by C. Wright Mills o Sociological Imagination: the recognition of the complex and interactive relationship between micro-level individual experiences and macro-level public issues o How is the unemployment of a factory worker in Michigan related to political and economic forces in our society? o Private Troubles vs. Public Issues  Private: obstacles that individuals face  Public: obstacles that individuals in similar positions face; also referred to as “social problems”  Key Components of Sociology o Systematic Study: Empirical data gathered through systematic research o The individual: Individuals can reject behavioral guidelines because of agency o Agency: (the freedom to choose and to act) o Society: Study of social environment is core of sociology o Social Inequality: Condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power o Sociologists use objective measures and do not make judgments based on personal beliefs o Social units: interconnected parts of the social world (range from interaction in dyads to negotiating between societies) o Social structure-people and groups that bring order to our lives and hold social units together (combined social units) o Social institutions-provide the rules, roles and relationships to direct and control human behavior (family, education, religion, etc.) o All are interconnected Dodd o Social processes: actions taken by people in social units o Process of socialization: how we learn the social expectations for members of society o Process of change: every social unit is continually changing o The environment: the setting surrounding each social unit  How is social order maintained? o August Comte (1798-1857)  Sought to establish the science of society that would reveal the basic “laws of society”  Coined the term “sociology: o Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)  Wrote first book on sociological theory  Introduced the significance of inequality and power into the discipline o Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)  Emphasized significance of social order  Introduced the concept of anomie—loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective  How do power and inequality shape outcomes? o Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Emphasized significance of power and control over resources  Alienation—loss of control over creative human capacity to produce, separation from product we make, and isolation from fellow
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