o Plan study, design research methods, analysis, drawing conclusions
o The group may be altered by the presence of the researcher (Hawthorne effect)
Ethnography—a field of study that involves self-reflection; the findings guide the future
methods and observations.
Secondary analysis-using data that has already been collected for other studies
o Data may not be representative, may not directly answer he researches questions
and any problems in the original data will persist in the new study
Content analysis—systematic categorization and recording of information from written or
o Unobtrusive, inexpensive, and easy to do
o Findings must be replicable.
o Subjects cant be harmed
o Confidentiality is protected
o Subjects must provide informed consent
o Human subject boards at universities and re
Society represents the hardware or structure that gives organization
Culture represents the software, the way people live
Definition of culture:
o Totality of shared language, knowledge, material objects, and behavior
o Material culture; tangible objects (clothing, food, design of cars)
o Nonmaterial culture: non-tangible objects (ideas, beliefs, customs, knowledge)
o Ideal culture vs. Real culture
Subculture—segment of society that shares distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and
values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.
Argot—specialized language used by members of a group or sub