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CAS PO 331 (27)
Lecture 12

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Political Science
CAS PO 331
Kate Krimmel

Lecture #12 Thursday, February 27, 2014 9:46 AM Bureaucracy - Cabinet agencies ○ Works at the president's discretion ○ No special or extra powers, but symbolic ○ Appointment must be approved by the Senate - Independent executive agencies ○ Placed outside of the cabinet departments  Report directly to the president  Predominantly under civilian control  Presidential appointees, □ Environmental Protection Agency - Independent regulatory commissions ○ Growing issues that local governments cannot handle  Congress does not want to do all the regulating □ Insulates them from potentially unpopular decisions and images ○ Restricts the influence of the president and party control  Federal Reserves, Federal Trade Commissions, etc. ○ Headed by a board of directors who uses majority rule  Appointed by the president (need consent of Senate) □ Fixed and staggered terms □ Sometimes Congress gives the president more power and allow for commissions - Government corporations ○ Normally provided by the public sector  Postal service and Amtrak - Who controls bureaucracy? ○ The president is technically the head because they are executive agencies ○ Sometimes it conflicts with what Congress wants  Does Congress give too much authority to bureaucracies? □ Principal agent problem: Misaligned incentives between the principal and the agent  Agencies can make decisions that are different from what Congress or the president may have done  Corruptions and shirking can happen; undersupplied output  Difficult to get rid of those problems  Most agencies have to go to a Congressional hearing before appropriations □ Congress requires agencies to report and Congress gives agencies what it expected of them ○ Congress monitors agencies in two ways  Police control is costly and hard to monitor  Fire alarm monitoring is done by citizens and interest groups  Sanctions can happen if agencies are not faithful and also can be reorganized  Administrative Procedures Act: Agencies cannot implement new policies without warning and have to allow comments and participations  Freedom of Information Act: All records to be made public and the burden of proof falls on the agencies □ Can re
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