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Lecture 2

COMPLETE The Policymaking Process Lecture 2 Notes (4.0ed this course!)

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Political Science
CAS PO 331
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Lecture #2 Tuesday, January 21, 2014 9:33 AM - What causes demand for policies - Why do we need policy? ○ Need rues for society ○ Negative externalities; pollutions ○ Protectthe public interest ○ Comfortableenvironment  Need gov't to provide public goods □ Parks, highways, bridges, national defense □ Non-excludable and non-rival □ USPS v. private  Universal service; public good □ Free rider problem ○ Collective action: Group of people working towards a commongoal  Charities  Labor Unions and interest groups  Political parties  Veterans  Protests  Voice of many is stronger than voice of one  Groups have to decide what their goal is □ Specific goals are hard to agree on in a large group □ Education  Achievementgap  Graduation rates  Standardized tests □ Coordination problems  Leader  Mutual understanding ○ Scheduling legislation in Congress  House Rules Committeedecide the scheduling □ Decide which bills go on the floor □ Deliberations,etc. □ Specific rules and regulations to keep organization ○ Different scheduling for the Senate  Informal discussions because smaller groups ○ Prisoners dilemma/zero-sum game  Dominant theory □ Individually rational may not be collectivelyrational □ Cohesion is needed for both parties  2 types of this problem in politics □ Free-rider problem  People don't want to contribute money or time  In a large group, people are more anonymous  In a small group, people can be hold accountable  Some people don't free ride because of culture and social pressure  Olson's solution: SelectiveIncentives ◊ People who contribute get some things in return □ Tragedy of the commons  No incentive to save Rationing and property rights  Rationing and property rights - 3 ways of typologies;visibility, Lowi and Wilson - Types of policies ○ Policy is a statementby the gov't of what it intends to do ○ Different levels of visibility  Can affect accountability 1) Constitutional is very visible because it is hard to amend and basic knowledge  Officials feel more accountable  Bigger incentives to follow because of large consequences 2) Statutory is highly visible  Codified in the Code  Publically available  Civil Rights of 1964  No Child Left Behind  Changes major behaviors 3) Regulatory agencies  Standards (Such as the definition of natural and organic by the department of agriculture)  Codified in the Federal Register 4) Standard operating procedures  Each agencies have rules to regulate  Codified in procedural manuals 5) Behavior of street level bureaucrats  Airport screeners after 9/11 6) Subtle changes in cognition (emphasis on p
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