PS101 Lecture 01 (Chapter 1)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

1/22 CHAPTER 1 "The Study of the Mind" Scientific study of: Behavior Mind From Greek "psyche" (mind) + "logos" (study of something) What we think and how we feel doesn't equate Behavior = action responses Behavior can be observed directly. Mind: eternal state, thoughts, feelings. Past experiences and how they reflect on our current behavior. Good ex. of complexity of all these behaviors/traits: Levels of analysis.Allows us to diagnose, treat. Psychology is a discipline that spans many levels of analysis. Example: Depression ● Molecular ○ Variation in genes ○ Predisposition ● Neurochemical ○ Different levels of neurotransmitters ○ Influences mood ● Serotonin, product of genes that influence/factor depression. Is it different levels of these that define a person’s recovery.. What do these varying levels... Do you have too much or do you not produce enough of serotonin? ● Neurological/physiological ○ Difference among people in brain structures related to mood ● What is it about the volume size of the hippocampus that may influence certain traits? ● Mental (~Mind level) ○ Depressed thoughts / mood ○ Sadness ○ Suicidal ideation ● Diminished ability to concentrate / Indecisiveness / * Feelings of worthlessness, guilt, whether appropriate or inappropriate ● Behavioral ○ Decrease in pleasurable activites ○ Withdrawal from others ○ Moving/talking slowly (Slow affect) ● Fatigue / Loss of energy / Insomnia and or hypersomnia / Weight loss (greater than 5% in a month) ● Social ○ Loss of intimate relationships ○ Lack of social support ● Thoughts on the ‘caregivers’, toll (emotional & physical) taken on caregivers, how does it affect them DSM (manual that helps us diagnose), look for 5+ symptoms (out of 9 ^) usually over 1-2 weeks. We all have bad days but is it chronic?At what point do we start to think about it being a problem and deviating from the norm? Criteria:At least one of the symptoms is the depressed mood/thoughts (mental) or decreased in pleasurable activities (behavioral). Then look for additional symptoms. ● Five Main Goals in Psychology ○ Describe (how people/animals behave) ■ May help us explain certain behaviors ■ Hopefully can help us predict how people may behave in certain situations ■ How can we influence behavior through the control of its causes in a more positive/healthier way ○ Understand ○ Predict ○ Influence ○ Apply ● Wundt and Other Early Psychologists ○ Wilhem Wundt ○ Considered the father of modern psychology ○ Founded what is generally considered the first experimental psychology lab in Germany (1879) ○ One of the first to argue that we should utilize scientific study ○ Often talked about consciousness (awareness of the immediate experience) ○ Really wanted to make psychology an independent discipline (to stand alone from philosophy or physiology) ○ Students started labs: ■ Cornell University 1891 - Edward Titdhener - analyzed consciousness ■ W and T were proponents of / tried to investigate how these are related ■ Gave way to functionalism. ● Structuralism VS. Functionalism ● Structuralism (“how”) ○ Identify the basic building blocks or structures of the mind ● Functionalism (“why”) ○ Investigate the purposes or functions of consciousness ● Functionalism ○ William James wrote a book called “Principles of Psychology” ○ One of the most influential text ○ James was more of a functionalist ○ Consciousness: continual flow of thought ○ “Stream of consciousness” ● Women Psychologists ○ Mary Whiton Calkins ■ student of William JAmes ■ Founded the early psych lab at Welsley College ■ 1st woman president ofAPA(American PsychologicalAssociation) ○ Margaret Floy Washburn ■ 1st women to earn PH.D ■ Book: “Animal Mind” ■ 2nd woman president ofAPA ○ Leta Stetter Hollingworth ■ Ado
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