"The Study of the Mind"
Scientific study of:
From Greek "psyche" (mind) + "logos" (study of something)
What we think and how we feel doesn't equate
Behavior = action responses
Behavior can be observed directly.
Mind: eternal state, thoughts, feelings.
Past experiences and how they reflect on our current behavior.
Good ex. of complexity of all these behaviors/traits: Levels of analysis.Allows us to diagnose,
Psychology is a discipline that spans many levels of analysis.
○ Variation in genes
○ Different levels of neurotransmitters
○ Influences mood
● Serotonin, product of genes that influence/factor depression. Is it different levels of these
that define a person’s recovery.. What do these varying levels... Do you have too much or
do you not produce enough of serotonin?
○ Difference among people in brain structures related to mood
● What is it about the volume size of the hippocampus that may influence certain traits?
● Mental (~Mind level)
○ Depressed thoughts / mood
○ Suicidal ideation
● Diminished ability to concentrate / Indecisiveness / * Feelings of worthlessness, guilt,
whether appropriate or inappropriate
● Behavioral ○ Decrease in pleasurable activites
○ Withdrawal from others
○ Moving/talking slowly (Slow affect)
● Fatigue / Loss of energy / Insomnia and or hypersomnia / Weight loss (greater than 5% in
○ Loss of intimate relationships
○ Lack of social support
● Thoughts on the ‘caregivers’, toll (emotional & physical) taken on caregivers, how does
it affect them
DSM (manual that helps us diagnose), look for 5+ symptoms (out of 9 ^) usually over 1-2
weeks. We all have bad days but is it chronic?At what point do we start to think about it being a
problem and deviating from the norm?
Criteria:At least one of the symptoms is the depressed mood/thoughts (mental) or decreased in
pleasurable activities (behavioral). Then look for additional symptoms.
● Five Main Goals in Psychology
○ Describe (how people/animals behave)
■ May help us explain certain behaviors
■ Hopefully can help us predict how people may behave in certain situations
■ How can we influence behavior through the control of its causes in a more
● Wundt and Other Early Psychologists
○ Wilhem Wundt
○ Considered the father of modern psychology
○ Founded what is generally considered the first experimental psychology lab in
○ One of the first to argue that we should utilize scientific study
○ Often talked about consciousness (awareness of the immediate experience)
○ Really wanted to make psychology an independent discipline (to stand alone from
philosophy or physiology)
○ Students started labs:
■ Cornell University 1891 - Edward Titdhener - analyzed consciousness
■ W and T were proponents of / tried to investigate how these are related
■ Gave way to functionalism.
● Structuralism VS. Functionalism
● Structuralism (“how”) ○ Identify the basic building blocks or structures of the mind
● Functionalism (“why”)
○ Investigate the purposes or functions of consciousness
○ William James wrote a book called “Principles of Psychology”
○ One of the most influential text
○ James was more of a functionalist
○ Consciousness: continual flow of thought
○ “Stream of consciousness”
● Women Psychologists
○ Mary Whiton Calkins
■ student of William JAmes
■ Founded the early psych lab at Welsley College
■ 1st woman president ofAPA(American PsychologicalAssociation)
○ Margaret Floy Washburn
■ 1st women to earn PH.D
■ Book: “Animal Mind”
■ 2nd woman president ofAPA
○ Leta Stetter Hollingworth