02 : THE RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGY
○ How we come to know
○ Philosophy of knowledge
○ Specific “methods” used to know/understand
Measurement and Description
● (Ex.) Collecting data by asking questions to determine “levels”
Understanding and Prediction
● How X Affects Y
● Always asking some empirical question; “If then this”, etc.
Theories, Hypotheses, and Research
○ Interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
○ “If - then” statements
○ How hypotheses are tested
● Use hypotheses to test theories
● Figure 2.1
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
● Hypothesis: Students who study over a span of 3 weeks before a test perform better than
those who wait until the night before
● 1. Method
● 2. Data Collection
● 3. Analysis
● 4. Report Findings
● In most publications, you see intro, (thesis? / theory?,) hypothesis, data, discussion
● Variable: anything we can measure (height, age, etc.)
● Independent Variable - Predictor Variable
○ Treatment, Program, Cause
● Dependent Variable - Outcome Variable
● Experimental Group
● Control Group
● Extraneous Variables ○ Other variables that might affect the dependent variable.
Which one is the dependent variable?
● Aphysiologist sets to determine whether the caloric content of food is a determinant of
the amount eaten by rats who have been subjected to 48 hours of sleep deprivation.
Mean, Standard Deviation
Skewness & Kurtosis: 2 statistics that tell us about the distribution data.
● Skewness: Shifting of the data to the left or right
● Kurtosis: Peakedness of the d