PS101 Lecture 6 (Chapter 5)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

CHAPTER 5 Variation in Consciousness The awareness of internal and external stimuli. Sensing those things in the world, around us, and within ourselves. The Nature of Consciousness ● Subjective and Private ● Dynamic: Ever-changing, Constant flux ○ William James: Stream of consciousness ● Self-Reflective ○ Sense of self The Electroencephalogram (EEG) ● Beta Waves (4-8 cycles/sec.) Light sleep ● Alpha Waves (8-12 cycles/sec.) Rest, relax ● Theta Waves (13-25 cycles/sec.)Alert, awake. ● Delta Waves (<4 cycles/sec.) Deep sleep Circadian Rhythms ● Biological Rhythms ● Periodic fluctuations in Physiological functions ○ B.P. (Blood Pressure) ○ Hormones (Secretion) ○ Alertness ○ STM ○ Core Body Temp ● As body cools down, tend to fall asleep.As body heats up, tend to wake up. Jet Lag ● Exposure to light affects activity in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus [SCN] (Hypothalamus) ● Signals to Pineal Gland ● Increase or decrease Melatonin SCN neurons are active during the day, melatonin is reduced, increases body temperature and alertness. SCN neurons not active during the night, melatonin is increased, easier transition to sleep/relaxation. ● Depends on which direction you traveled. ○ Flying West easier than East. ~18% on rotating job shifts. The Stages of Sleep ● Stage 1 Sleep: Theta waves prominent ● Stage 2 sleep: Sleep Spindles and Mixed EEG Activity ○ Sleep Spindles: short 1-2 second bursts of rapid activity. ● Stage 3 and Stage 4 Sleep: ○ Slow-wave Sleep ■ Progressively More Delta Waves ■ Stage 3: Delta waves appear ■ Stage 4: Delta waves dominant REM Sleep ● Awake: Low-voltage. High frequency beta waves ● REM Sleep: Low-voltage, High frequency beta waves (most of our dreaming) ● During dreaming, physiological arousal can reach daytime levels Repeating the Cycle ● 8 hours daily Sleep Deprivation ● Impaired attention, reaction time, decision making ● Traffic accidents ● Workplace accidents ● Health Problems Sleep Disorders There’s a cellular waste product, adenosine, how our body needs to purge and restore. During sleep, adenosine decreases. ● Dyssomnias ○ Disturbance
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