PS101 Lecture 8 (Chapter 6)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

06 Learning Any relative is durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience Habituation ● One simplest form of learning ● Responding less strongly overtime to a repeated stimulus ● Don’t need to attend every sensation Pavlov’s classical conditioning Pairing stimuli in such a way that one stimulus comes to elicit the same response as the other Pavlov’s demonstration Ex. The dog experiment Condition(learn) and uncondition(Nature) response Neutral stimulus(NS)→UR UCS→UR (CS)+UCS→CR CS→CR (All the definitions are important) After learning, once was NS becomes CS Acquisition(forming new responses) ● Refers to the initial stage of learning something Extinction(weakening conditioned responses) ● The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency ● Association between the unconditioned and conditioned stimulus is broken ● CS alone can extinct Spontaneous Recovery(resurrecting responses) ● The reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of non-exposure to the conditioned stimulus ● Can be relearned/recall/recovery John Watson - Stimulus Generalization ● An organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus response in the same way to new stimulus that are similar to the original is stimulus ● LittleAlbert High-order Conditioning ● Aconditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus ● Red ball with Bell with Food →Salivation Operant conditioning ● Aform of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences(rewards or punishments) ● Classical conditioning is involuntary response and operant conditioning is admitted Edward L.Thorndike - “Puzzle Box” ● Put a hungry cat in a puzzle box and food outside it(It wants to get out and overtime learned how) ● Law of Effect ○ Actions followed by a pleasurable consequence will tend to be repeated ○ Actions followed by an unpleasant consequence will tend NOT to be repeated B.F.Skinner ● Elaborated on Thorndike’s law of effect ● “Operant Conditioning” ● Voluntary behavior is what people/animals do to OPERATE in the world ● ...voluntary behavior is OPERANT behavior and the learning of such behavior is OPERANT CONDITIONING ● The key to operant conditioning is the effect of consequences on behavior ● Learning depends on what happens after the response - the consequence(After the response)(classical is before the response) ● Learning/Associating actions with consequences ○ Actions followed by reinforcers increase ○ Actions followed by punishers decrease ● Going your favorite restaurant (great foods make you go there more often)/Telling jokes that make your friends laugh makes you tell more jokes ● Reinforcement - Behavior tendency increase(No matter positive or negative) ● Punishment - Behavior tendency decrease Skinner’s box - operant chamber ● Record visual data(graphs) ● Different schedule causes different graph ● Agraphic summary of the animals behavior responses over time(6.13) Acquisition ● Initial stage of learning some new pattern of responding because of reinforcements Shaping ● Reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desire response(successive approximation) ● Help the rat to press the level ● Priscilla the pig (P243) Reinforcement - to strengthen/increase a response Anything that, when following a response, causes that response to be more likely to happen again ● Primary reinforcers ○ Satisfies some basic biological need(Food-hunger, l
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