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Lecture 10

PS101 Lecture 10 (Chapter 7)

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

CHAPTER 07 - HUMAN MEMORY Attention is important to memory Three Key Processes of Memory ● Encoding - Sense sensory input, short-term memory, → long-term ● Storage - Maintain, like hard drive ● Retrieval - Retrieve at will The Role of Attention ● Encoding ○ Forming a memory code from some stimulus ○ Vital aspect:Attention ● Levels of Encoding ○ Levels of Processing Theory ○ Structural Encoding: ■ Shallow process that emphasizes physical structure of word ■ Q. Is the word written in capital letters? ○ Phonemic Encoding: ■ Emphasizes what the word sounds like ■ Q. Does the word rhyme with weight? ○ Semantic Encoding ■ Emphasizes the meaning of the word ■ Q. Would the word fit in the sentence: “He met a ___ on the street”? ● Ways to Improve Encoding ○ Visual Imagery: ■ Dual Coding Theory: Memory is enhanced by semantic and/or visual codes ■ Word: Juggler Imagery: Guy juggling ■ Word: Truth Imagery: ? Indiv. imagery Self-Referent - Find way to link academics/learning/knowledge to YOU. + Motivation Information Processing Theories ● Sensory Memory ● Short-term Memory ● Long-term Memory Sensory Memory Short-term elaborative reh. Long-term Sensory input →Attention → Rehearsal → Storage → Unlimited capacity store ← Retrieval Sensory Memory ● Gives us time to facilitate ● ~1 second ● Lasts very short, especially if unattended ● Iconic - visual (icon) ● Echoic - auditory ● Sensory ● Auditory ● Most info in sensory memory rapidly fades unless unattended Short-term Memory ● Limited capacity ● 20~30 seconds ● Once in short-term, still attended in some way, facilitate further ● Rehearsal - rehearse information → further e
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