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Lecture 12

PS101 Lecture 12 (Chapter 10)

5 Pages

Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

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Wed. 27th, Test Review in Disc. Thurs. 28th, Last lecture of material on exam. - Class starts at 8:15. April 2nd, Guest lecture. *Material on Final CHAPTER 10 Motivation What is motivation? ● Process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior. Drive Theories ● Motivation is based on some internal state of flux or tension that motivates organism to do something that reduces those states or returns to homeostasis equilibrium. ● Motives: Needs, interests, desires, that propel us to behave. ● Blood vessels in skin dilate to remove heat ● Person sweats ● Turns down furnace ● Removes sweater Incentive Theories ● Need → Drive → Response → Something positive (i.e, ice cream, money,A+) High-incentive value goal ● Need → Drive → Response → Something negative (i.e, carrot Low-incentive value goal ● External stimuli Extrinsic Motivation ● Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment Intrinsic Motivation ● Performing an activity for its own sake Biological vs. Social Motives (Fig. 10.2) Biological Motives: ● Hunger ● Thirst ● Excretion ● Sex ● Sleep ● Activity ● Temperature ● Aggression Social Motives: ● Achievement ● Nurturance - to care for others ● Exhibition - to impress others ● Affiliation ● Order - tidiness ● Autonomy - independence / adult ● Dominance - make our mark / influence and control outcomes ● Play - for amusement / relaxation Humanistic Views ● Striving for personal growth ● Need hierarchy: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ○ ● Self-determination theory: focus on psychological needs ○ Competence ○ Autonomy ○ Relatedness Motivation … Example ● Motivation of Hunger ○ Biological Factors: ■ Hypothalamus ■ Blood Glucose ■ Insulin ■ Leptin - Less = More
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