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Lecture 13

PS101 Lecture 13 (Chapter 11)

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Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

CHAPTER 11 : Human DevelopmentAcross the Lifespan Development ● Pattern of change ● Begins at conception ● Continues through life cycle ● ~122 oldest person ● ~78.7 average life expectancy ● ~76.2 men ● ~81.1 women Y-axis,Age at time of testing, 0 - 50 in tens Cross-sectional design: people of varying ages studied simultaneously X-axis, Year testing is conducted, 2005 - 2045 in tens Longitudinal design: same people studied over a period of time Longitudinal Research Y-axis, VocabularyAbility, -20 - 10 in 5s X-axis, Age at Measurement, 0-80 in 10s. Developmental Processes ● Biological processes ● Cognitive processes ● Socioemotional processes Periods of Development Prenatal period, Infancy, Early childhood, Middle and late childhood,Adolescence Multifinality Core Issues in Development ● Nature and Nurture ● Critical Periods and Plasticity ○ Are some developmental outcomes restricted to certain “critical periods” or is it at all periods? → Both. ○ We are not just older versions of our younger selves. We have the capacity to change. ● Continuity and Discontinuity ○ Are there important continuities across the lifespan, or is it everything in flux? ○ Continuity is linear growth. ○ Discontinuity is step-like. (Like going up stairs.) ● Universality and Specificity ○ Universal developmental trajectories, process, and changes or is development more specific to place and time? ○ Age-graded Change ■ What most people experience at a chronological age group (puberty, etc.) ○ History-graded Change ■ Development is influenced by events (Great Depression, 9/11, etc.) ○ Non-normative (Life-) Change ■ We may share but are very specific/personal (Loss of loved one, chronic illness, etc.) ● Activity
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