CHAPTER 11 : Human DevelopmentAcross the Lifespan
● Pattern of change
● Begins at conception
● Continues through life cycle
● ~122 oldest person
● ~78.7 average life expectancy
● ~76.2 men
● ~81.1 women
Y-axis,Age at time of testing, 0 - 50 in tens
Cross-sectional design: people of varying ages studied simultaneously
X-axis, Year testing is conducted, 2005 - 2045 in tens
Longitudinal design: same people studied over a period of time
Y-axis, VocabularyAbility, -20 - 10 in 5s
X-axis, Age at Measurement, 0-80 in 10s.
● Biological processes
● Cognitive processes
● Socioemotional processes
Periods of Development
Prenatal period, Infancy, Early childhood, Middle and late childhood,Adolescence
Multifinality Core Issues in Development
● Nature and Nurture
● Critical Periods and Plasticity
○ Are some developmental outcomes restricted to certain “critical periods” or is it at
all periods? → Both.
○ We are not just older versions of our younger selves. We have the capacity to
● Continuity and Discontinuity
○ Are there important continuities across the lifespan, or is it everything in flux?
○ Continuity is linear growth.
○ Discontinuity is step-like. (Like going up stairs.)
● Universality and Specificity
○ Universal developmental trajectories, process, and changes or is development
more specific to place and time?
○ Age-graded Change
■ What most people experience at a chronological age group (puberty, etc.)
○ History-graded Change
■ Development is influenced by events (Great Depression, 9/11, etc.)
○ Non-normative (Life-) Change ■ We may share but are very specific/personal (Loss of loved one, chronic