○ How many people in a population have the disorder?
○ How many ‘new’cases occur in a specific time period?
○ What do we expect to see here? What is the long-term outcome?
● (Ex.) Common cold - Acute onset, time-limited.
Previous learning history
Low social support
Interpersonal stresses or losses
Occupational setbacks or demands
What are Personality Disorders?
● Enduring patterns of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the
expectations of the individual’s culture:
○ Enduring pattern:
○ Is inflexible and pervasive across broad range of personal and social situations
○ Is stable and of long duration...
● Odd, Eccentric (Paranoia)
● Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic (Antisocial, narcissistic)
● Anxious, Fearful (OCD) Paranoid
● Pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’motives are interpreted as
○ Suspects (others) exploiting, harming, deceiving
○ Doubts loyalty/trustworthiness
○ Reluctant to confide
○ Reads hidden meanings into benign remarks/events
○ Bears grudges
○ Attacks on character/reputation
○ Suspicions regarding fidelity
● Pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
○ Failure to conform to social norms
○ Deceitfulness (lying, conning, aliases)
○ Irritability and aggressiveness
○ Reckless disregard for safety of self/others
○ Consistent irresponsibility
○ Lack of remorse
● Pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
○ Uncomfortable when not the “center of attention”
○ Inappropriate seductive or provocative behavior
○ Rapidly shifting and shallow emotions
○ Physical appearance to draw attention to self
○ Impressionistic speech
○ Suggestible...easily influenced by others
○ Considers relationships to be more intimate than they are
● Pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
○ Grandiose sense of self-importance
○ Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, etc.
○ Believes themselves special/unique
○ Requires excessive admiration
○ Sense of entitlement
○ Interpersonally exploitative
○ Lacks empathy
○ Often envious of others
○ Shows arrogance
Dependent ● Pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging
behavior and fears of s