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CAS PS 101 (263)
Lecture 17

PS101 Lecture 17

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Boston University
Psychological & Brain Sciences
CAS PS 101
Barry Grant

Cognitive Factors of Depression ● Learned Helplessness ○ Negative Events (arrow point down) ○ Attribution to Personal Flaws ○ Sense of Hopelessness ○ Depression Behavioral Factors of Depression Poor Social Skills (Phone*) ● Acquire fewer reinforcers such as good friends, top jobs ● Court rejection because of irritability, pessimism ● Gravitate to people who confirm negative self-views Increased Vulnerability to Depression SCHIZOPHRENIA ● Psychological disorder characterized by signs and symptoms: ○ Present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period ○ Associated with marked dysfunction ● Characteristic symptoms of Schizophrenia involve a range of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include: ● Broad categories: ○ Positive - reflect an excess or distortion of normal function ■ Delusions: ● “Disorder of thought content” ● Erroneous beliefs that usually involve a misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences (“reality”) ■ Hallucinations: ● Experience of sensory events without any input from the surrounding environment (auditory most common) ○ Negative - reflect a lessening or loss of normal function ■ Indicate the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior including: ■ Alogia - restriction of speech, flat response ■ Abolition - restriction in initiation of goal-directed behavior ■ Anhedonia - overall lack of interest ○ Disorganized symptoms - rambling speech, erratic behavior, inappropriate affect Schizophrenic Disorders ● Paranoid ● Catatonic - immobility phrensic?/frantic motor activity ● Disorganized - frequent incoherence (rambling speech, radical behavior) ○ Severe deterioration in behavior, often incoherent, virtually complete social withdrawal ● Undifferentiated - people who are diagnosed but cannot be fit under categories above. Relationship --> Genetic relatedness VS. Lifetime RNK (Phone*) Axis I:Anxiety Disorders ● Anxiety - Tension and apprehension to perceived threat ● Anxiety Disorder - Frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion ● Anxiety is a future-oriented state; Fear is more immediate (Phone*) Emotional Symptoms ● Feelings of tension ● Apprehension Cognitive ● Worry ● Thoughts about inability to cope Physiological ● Increased heart rate ● Muscle tension ● Other autonomic arousal symptoms Behavioral ● Avoidance of feared situations ● Decreased task performance ● Increased startle response SPECIFIC PHOBIAS ● Clinically significant anxiety provoked by exposure to a specific feared object or situation ● Subtypes: ○ Animal (~Age 7)
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