PS101, Lec 14: 03/19/2013
Why do we dream?
Freud: Dreams have meaning
Hobson: Dreaming is a brain activity that doesn’t necessarily have meaning.
Disruptions of sleep: Medical Disorders:
Reduced by hypocretin/orexin
Genetics, autoimmune/HLA factors
Drug treatments Ritalin, Adderall, Proigil, caffeine. All similar to cocaine but less addictive and more lasting.
All raise dopamine levels.
Also used for wake shift sleep disorder: Environmental.
Apnea, and hypopnea.
Disruptions of sleep:
• Transient: less than a week, stress and environment
• Acute: Less than a month (ex. Constant stress)
• Chronic: more than a month.
Treatments: Sleeping pills, but they can backfire. Ex. Michael Jackson got hooked on stimulant drugs,
so was insomniac, so got hooked on sleeping pills. Developed drug tolerance. Ambien is a very common
and effective drug.
Tolerance: Need more of the drug gradually for the same effect. Behavioral remedies: Very effective and natural:
• Regular schedule: keeping intervals for wakefulness and sleep time.
• Calming activity before bed, relaxation techniques.
• Daily exercise, but not right before bed.
• Avoid alcohol, heavy meals, caffeine before bed.
• Make bedroom environment conductive to sleep
• Don’t get upset about not sleeping. Get off the bed and do something difference.
Participated once. Twice.
Organs in Body and chemicals they control:
SCN – in the hypothalamus (hormones and homeostasis). Maintains a certain level of activity or inactivity
in your body.
• Serotonin: changes in EEG are correlated with changes in serotonin. On switch for sleep.
• Dopamine: Opposite of serotonin. Get wakefulness.
• Melatonin: quite different. Called the hormone of darkness. Melatonin peaks when it’s darkest
outside. Even in people with a night job with a reversed sleep cycle, melatonin is highest in the dark.
Taken as a supplement for sleep medications to aid sleeping. In 1/3 of people having insomnia,
insomnias caused by changes in sleep cycle ex. Jetlag, melatonin