PS101, Lec 16 03/26/2013
Next Thursday: Next Midterm
Finishing up language and development. Just next 2 lecs included in midterm.
Most observable quality in infants is:
Kagan, Soumi: Temperament. Soumi said it’s not just nature or nurture, it’s
Outgoing vs. cautious.
Definite genetic component (inheritance)
Definitely modified by environment (nurturing)
Very similar in humans and nonhuman primates.
Harlow suggested motherly attachment isn’t just for food or survival.
Cry when separated, actively seek comfort.
Control Responsiveness Low High
Low Permissive, indifferentPermissive, indulgent
High Authoritarian Authoritative Excessively permissive > dependent, low selfesteem
Authoritarian (too much) > less curious & positive, tend to have fewer friends
Authoritative (exert healthy control, but also responsive) > socially and emotionally
Cognition: Thinking. Ability to process information coming in from sensory receptors. Also includes
Says the idea of cognition is changing.
Cognitive development is active.
Four distinct stages.
Thinking is qualitatively different in each stage.
Assimilation and accommodation.
Fitting new info to existing schemas. Ex. grammar and how to relate words to one another in a correct
Restructuring schemas to accommodate new info.
• Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to age 2
Sensing and manipulating objects
Object Permanence (still there even if you can’t see it)
• Preoperational stage: 2 to 7 years.