DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH.docx

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Department
Psychological & Brain Sciences
Course Code
CAS PS 241
Professor
Stacey Doan

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DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCH Developmental science – studying change and constancy throughout the lifespan • Domains of development – all interrelated! Like prettier  better emotional self esteem o Physical – body size o Cognitive – IQ o Emotional and social – communication • Influences on development o Age-graded – predictable in when they occur, mostly dependent on age o History-graded – unique to particular era like war o Non-normative – irregular, unpredicted events that happen to just a few people • Theory – an orderly integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior • Scientific research o Research: overall plans for experiment o Methods: how you go about doing the experiment • Designs o Correlational – relationships o Experimental – cause and effects THEORIES AND METHODS • Modified experiments • Field experiments is to capitalize on an event that happens (natural disaster) while a natural experiment capitalizes on factors that already exist (ethnicity) o Field experiments?  rare opportunities for random assignment in natural settings  kind of like experimental studies  example: looking at effects of Katrina, effects of having a black president  for field experiment, people have already been exposed to Katrina or something, so you can already put them into control vs non control groups and get the data without actually modifying a lot. But it has to be like an event that changed someone. So random assignment has already been done for u o Natural Experiments?  Compare differences in treatment that already exist  Groups chosen to match characteristics as much as possible  Kind of like observational studies • Possible moderators – depends on… • Possible mediators – is explained by… • Bobo doll experiment o Mediator – COMES AFTER THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE  X=independent  Y=dependent variable  Z=mediator variable, the why variable. What explains the relationship between two variables. Explains the action • Internal working models, or arousal  An internal working model as a mediator is saying that this exposure to violence children learn a “script” a “model” of how to behave, and it is the acquisition of this “script” that explains why exposure to violence leads to increased violent behavior o Moderator – PRECEDES THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE  Z= moderator variable says it depends • Gender matched with model, or temperament • So like they says it depends on similar sex or not • Or they say it depends if the child is usually calm or angry  Below, affect is the moderator variable. If you were in a positive mood, you would think the duration of perceived sound is not as long.  If you were listening to song music, and u were in a high positive affect mood, it will feel a lot shorter. So like it depends on mood  A child’s range of reaction can serve as a moderator MEDIATOR/MODERATOR • For example: take the case of exposure to violence (counter strike) and violent behavior • If you ask the question, “WHY does exposure to violence increase violent behavior?” then you are asking what is the mediator o Glorifies killing, desensitizes the violence • But if you ask, “Does the relationship between exposure to violence and violent behavior DEPEND on another variable?” then you are asking about a moderator o The child’s mood before the exposure (like angry) • A variable can be BOTH a moderator and a mediator o With a negative mood, an increase of exposure to violence can lead to increased violent behavior • Moderator effects can have cross over effects – might be helpful to one group but detrimental to the other DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGNS Longitudinal Same participants studied repeatedly at different ages Cross-sectional Take a bunch of 3-4 year olds. Participants of differing ages all studied at the same time Sequential Several similar cross sectional or longitudinal studies are conducted at varying times Microgenetic Interested in crawling to walking, you can zoom in where you think the transition is occurring and find out when it happens. You give a task to participants and see their mastery over time. Cohort effects – something happens to one group but not to the other?? Is develop continuous or discontinuous? • Continuous – refers to the idea that development is a process that is best characterized as a graudate accumulation of behavior, skills, or knowledge o Example: height • Discontinuous – refers to the idea that development is a prcess that occurs in stages, and each stage is qualitatively different from the previous o Example: going from crawling to walking o Something is a different stage as opposed to a smooth stage Closed and open systems • equifinality – a term developed by the founder of general systems theory. It refers to the idea that in open systems an “end” state may begin at different points, and be accomplished via many different paths o like depression. Everyone has different reasons as to why they got depression, but end state is the same • multifinality – describes a system where the final outcome could vary despite the same initial state o both children are poor but one is motivated from that and the other is not. So you have the same initial state but different end state. Another is like twins. • Stability – individuals high or low in a characteristic remain so at later ages. Early experience may have a lifelong impact • Plasticity – change is possible, based on experiences Orchid and Dandelion Hypothesis (differential susceptibility hypothesis) • Certain genes/temperament don't dictate whether you are inclined to a certain behavior, simply that you are easily affected by your environment • Dandelion children can be raised in any environment but will just be the average kid • Orchid children are more sensitive, and need more stable, nurturing environments. When the environment fits, they will do a lot better, but if it is unstable, they will have a lot of problems o Orchid genes: DRD4 gene which affects dopamine release especially 7R variant, MAO – which affects serotonin, SERT – previously named the “depression” gene GENETIC-ENVIRONMENT CORRELATION • Passive correlation – if parents are athletic, more likely to take you on walks and go outside o A certain type of parent with certain type of genes is going to create a certain type of environment o Passive because child doesn't have to do anything • Evocative correlation – some babies look cuter, so they evoke a certain environment. So these cuter babies that sleep well will evoke a better parenting style • Active correlation (niche-picking) – when you reach adolescents, you pick out the environment you want to be in EPIGENETICS: how to make a better mouse • Epi-genome – “In addition to” or “above the genome” provides direction for “what to do, when to do, and where to do it”. The “software” that directs the genomic hardware • Mythylation (a mythel group… • Study 1: exposed pregnant mothers to BPA, a common chemical found in plastics o Results: the number of obese, yellow offspring increased. Decreased DNA methylation, agouti gene turned on • Study 2: fed mothers B vitamins o Results: turned off the agouti gene. The experimental group gave birth to healthy brown mice. • Therefore, environment can change DNA expressions • Maternal behavior o Meaney found that pups of mother rats who lick and groom a lot have lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol. This effect lasted into adulthood o Cross-fostering design – assign random moms to different children and rule out the genetic effects PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Zygote o Two weeks, from fertilization until attachment to uterus th o First cell duplication is 30 hours after conception. By the 4 day, 60- 70 cells form a blastocyst • Embryo o Implantation through 8 week o Primitive brain and spinal cord appear o External body structures begin to form • Fetus o Rapid increase in size o Most of brain’s neurons are in place by 24 weeks o By 25 weeks, good chance of survival • Teratogens: any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period o Prescription drugs  Eye, ear, brain, heart deformities o Illegal drugs  Perceptual, motor, attention, memory, language o Tobacco  Low birth weight, prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing, infant death, later asthma and cancer o Alcohol  Fetal alcohol syndrome, slow growth physical abnormalities, mental impairment o Radiation  Miscarriage, under-developed brains, physical deformities o Environmental pollution (mercury, lead)  Low birth weight, prematurity, physical defects, brain damage LABOR (chapter 4) • Stages of labor o Dilation/effacement o Transition o Pushing o Birth of the baby o Placenta • The apgar scale o Appearance – what’s the color of the baby o Pulse – heart rate. In newborn you want 100-140 o Grimace – reflex abilities o Activity – muscle tone. If limbs are limp then theres something wrong o Respiration – how much the baby is breathing, make them cry • Medical interventions in childbirth o Fetal monitoring medication – the strap that monitors heartbeat of the fetus  Analgesics – pain killer • Epidural – a localized pain killer that will only affect the lower part. Given through a shot in the spine  Anesthetics – numbing of any area o Instrument delivery – using forceps or a vacuum extraction to get the baby out o Induced labor  Artificially induced by breaking the amniotic sac  Synthetic oxytocin administered  Makes sense if baby is getting too big o Cesarean delivery (c section) – usually done for medical emergencies  31% of births in the united states  Rh (rhesus factor) incompatibility  Infection – HSV2 (can affect baby in vaginal delivery)  Breech position (when baby is leg first) • Anoxia – oxygen deprivation at birth o Can lead to brain damage or later cognitive, language problems like cerebral palsy o Causes: squeezing by umbilical cord, premature separation, placenta covering cervical opening PRETERM– Born weeks before their due date o May be appropriate weight for length of pregnancy o 7 more days in the womb can contribute greatly to infant health • Interventions for preterm infants o Isolette – glass chamber o Respirator o Feeding tube o Intravenous medication o Special infant stimulation o Kangaroo skin-to-skin contact – when parents put the baby to their skin. The contact helps reduce infant stress significantly o Parent training in caregiving – low income parents are more at risk for low cognitive factors in the infant. If they give the baby special care for 400 days or more then they will do significantly better • Precious moments after birth o Oxytocin causes the breasts to let down milk, heightens the mother’s response to baby o Touching infants is beneficial for infants at early stages • Newborn reflexes o Eye blink o Withdrawal o Rooting – mouth to boob reflex o Sucking – sucks anything o Swimming – knows how to swim o Moro – anxiety reflex. Arms and legs go out and then come back in if you “drop” them o Palmar grasp – finger in hand will make them grasp o Tonic neck o Stepping – if you put them on a flat surface they will try to step o Babinski – the thing where u tickle their toe and they will expand the toes • The mysterious tragedy of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) o Baby dies in the first year for no reason o Leading cause of mortality in developed countries • Small-for-date – born at due date but is smaller than they should be (prematurity) WHYARE BABIES BORN SO
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