PS251, Lec 5: 09/13/2013
Freud shifted away from Earlier seduction theory and started to look at more general theory. Observations
on people who’ve had a history of trauma.
Life and death instincts, someway these things can get hidden in the wrong way.
Paranoia: are concerned that the world is out to get them. Us vs. them mentality. Called a fascist mind
set in social psychology.
In cathexist, decath. Perspective: Someone who’s paranoid is an angry person who has a lot of
unfinished business in the world. They don’t see themselves as angry. They take unacceptable parts of
themselves and project them (anger) out on the world. Their anger cycles back to them when they try to
project it out on the world. They think the world is angry at them. Freud recognized this phenomena that
seems to have clinical relevance. He wrote an article 1915 where he tried to understand the different
between mourning and melancholia (grieving and depression).
Projection: Taking something that the person is doing and thinking that other people are doing the same
Grieving “mourning” Depression “melancholia”
He was studying the overlap. When people can’t grieve properly they get depressed. Ex. Think of someone
who loses someone unexpectedly, and tries to move on.
Serotonin and dopamine. When someone is depressed their cortisol levels go up. Negative use of the self,
the world, and the future. Using this theory, how can one move from one to the other?
In the overlap, called complicated bereavement, which is long term depressive disorder.
In DSM5, specifies that you should exclude bereavement.
What is depression?
Bereavement is a normal process. Symptoms of depression (acronym):
Sleep: goes down. Don’t get enough restful sleep. Wake up very early in the morning. Typical. Some
people sleep too much, atypical reaction.
Interest: goes down.
Guilt: goes up. Things people feel guilty about don’t even make sense sometimes.
Energy: goes down.
Concentration: goes down.
Appetite: typically goes down. Loss of appetite. Overeating is an atypical reaction. High caloric stuff
temporarily give a dopamine boost, that’s why. Psychomotor retardation: children show depression through irritability. Men get aggressive and